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John Poyer

John Poyer


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John Poyer bio je uspješan trgovac suknom iz Pembroka. On je također bio puritanac i bio je snažan zagovornik stava parlamenta protiv kralja. Kako je Poyer bio i gradonačelnik Pembroka, odigrao je važnu ulogu u odluci grada da proglasi svoju potporu Parlamentu na početku građanskog rata.

Kada su rojalističke snage pokušale zauzeti Pembroke 1644. godine, Poyer je služio vojsku pod vodstvom gradskog vojnog zapovjednika, Rowlanda Laugharnea. Kasnije, kada je Laugharne postao sveukupni zapovjednik parlamentarne vojske u Južnom Walesu, Poyer je postao vojni guverner Pembrokea.

Nakon uspješne pobjede nad rojalističkim snagama 1647. godine, Parlament je počeo stvarati planove za raspuštanje svoje vojske. To je izazvalo veliku zabrinutost jer mnogi vojnici nisu bili plaćeni nekoliko mjeseci. Drugi su bili zabrinuti zbog povećanja poreza koje je uvela parlamentarna vlada.

Parlament je 24. prosinca proglasio da će svi vojnici koji su se prijavili nakon 6. kolovoza 1647. biti otpušteni bez plaće. Oni koji su se pridružili u ranijoj fazi rata trebali su primati samo dvomjesečnu plaću.

Poyer je bio bijesan kad je čuo vijest i počeo držati govore svojim vojnicima napadajući odluku Parlamenta da raspusti vojsku. Kad je Parlament otkrio što Poyer radi, poslali su pukovnika Fleminga da ga zamijeni na mjestu guvernera dvorca Pembroke.

Poyer je odbio odustati od dvorca i umjesto toga poslao je pismo Parlamentu tražeći isplatu 1000 funti zaostalih plaća za svoje ljude. Pukovnik Fleming ponudio je 200 funti, ali je to odbijeno. Drugi vojnici sa sjedištem u Južnom Walesu, koji su čuli za Poyerove akcije, počeli su se upućivati ​​prema Pembrokeu kako bi mu pružili svoju pomoć. Poyerovi pristaše bili su dva najviša vojna časnika u Južnom Walesu, general bojnik Rowland Laugharne i pukovnica Rice Powell.

Parlament je sada shvatio da imaju veliku pobunu u rukama. Situacija je postala još gora kada je stigla vijest da se Charles I dogovorio sa Škotima. U zamjenu za potporu škotske vojske, Charles je pristao prihvatiti uspostavu prezbiterijanske religije u Engleskoj.

Dana 10. travnja 1648. Poyer je izjavio da sada podržava kralja. Ohrabreni Poyerovom izjavom za kralja, bivši rojalistički vojnici počeli su se pridruživati ​​Poyeru u Pembroku.

Kad je Parlament čuo za Poyerove akcije u Pembroku, poslali su pukovnika Thomasa Hortona s 3.000 vojnika da se obračuna s pobunom. Rowland Laugharne i gotovo 8000 pobunjenika napustili su Pembroke i angažirali Hortonovu parlamentarnu vojsku u St. Fagansu u Glamorganu. Iako brojčano nadjačana, Hortonova iskusna i dobro disciplinirana vojska uspjela je pobijediti loše naoružane vojnike Laugharnea. Preko 200 Laugharneinih ljudi je ubijeno, a još 3.000 je zarobljeno. Laugharne i ono što je ostalo od njegove vojske uspjeli su pobjeći natrag u Pembroke.

Pobuna se sada proširila i na druge dijelove Walesa. Richard Bulkeley i ljudi iz Angleseyja izjavili su svoju podršku kralju, a Sir John Owen pokušao je oduzeti dvorac Denbigh od parlamentarne vojske. Na jugu zemlje Rice Powell preuzela je kontrolu nad Tenbyjem, a Sir Nicholas Kemeys i drugi lokalni rojalisti zauzeli su dvorac Chepstow.

Shvativši da se pobuna mora brzo ugušiti, Parlament je odlučio poslati Olivera Cromwella i pet pukovnija u Wales. Cromwellove trupe osvojile su dvorac Chepstow 25. svibnja, a šest dana kasnije Rice Powell bila je prisiljena predati Tenbyja.

Cromwell je sada otišao u Pembroke kako bi se dogovorio s Poyerom i Rowlandom Laugharneom. Dvorac, izgrađen na velikoj masi vapnenačkih stijena i gotovo potpuno okružen rijekom Pembroke, smatrao se jednom od najjačih tvrđava u Britaniji.

Oliver Cromwell nije imao dovoljno velike kanone da probije zidove koji su na nekim mjestima bili debeli 20 stopa. Niti je imao opsadne ljestve koje su se mogle nositi sa zidovima visokim 80 stopa. Pokušaji napada na dvorac nisu uspjeli pa je Cromwell bio prisiljen čekati i izgladnjivati ​​pobunjenike.

Cromwell je pisao Parlamentu predviđajući da će Poyer i njegovi ljudi biti prisiljeni predati se za otprilike dva tjedna. Međutim, u početku nije bio svjestan da dvorac ima svoju izvrsnu opskrbu vodom. Na kraju je jedan mještanin odao tajnu Cromwellu i opsadna vojska uspjela je presjeći izloženu vodovodnu cijev na rubu grada.

Nakon osam tjedana opsade i potpuno bez hrane i vode, pobunjeni vojnici u dvorcu bili su prisiljeni predati se. Cromwell se blago odnosio prema bivšim vojnicima rojalista. Njegov glavni bijes bio je usmjeren prema onima koji su prije toga bili članovi parlamentarne vojske.

Poyeru, Rowlandu Laugharneu i Rice Powell sudilo se na vojnom sudu u Londonu, a nakon što su proglašeni krivim, svi su osuđeni na smrt. Thomas Fairfax, vođa oružanih snaga, odlučio je da samo jedan treba umrijeti. Trojica muškaraca odbili su sudjelovati u lutriji kako bi odlučili tko će biti pogubljen. Vojne vlasti odabrale su malo dijete za izvlačenje ždrijeba. Papiri izvučeni za Laugharnea i Powella glasili su: "Život dat od Boga". Poyerov papir bio je prazan i ustrijeljen je pred velikom gomilom u Covent Gardenu 21. travnja 1649. godine.

Pukovnik Poyer ... je iz niske trgovine u ratu uzdigao ugled vrlo vrijednog i stasitog časnika, a Parlament mu je tada povjerio vladu grada i dvorca Pembroke.

Nekoliko ljudi ... već su dobili previše moći u svoje ruke i žele nas raspustiti ... Kako bi mogli porobiti narod ... i uspostaviti poreze. Obećavamo da ćemo zaštititi ljude od ozljeda i održati protestantsku religiju ... kako je zakonom utvrđeno u ovoj zemlji. Stoga žudimo za pomoći cijelog kraljevstva.

Kao zapovjednik ovih okruga ... ne mogu ignorirati uvrede koje su izrekli mojim ljudima ... Umjesto da im parlament odobri plaću ... oni su raspušteni ... To se dogodilo u mojoj odsutnosti, i koliko ja znam, još uvijek nezaštićen ... Vjerujem da je moja prošla služba za vašu zemlju ... zaslužila mnogo bolji tretman.

Želim da imamo vašu pomoć u nabavi nekih potrepština za lijevanje u peći za željezo u vašoj županiji Carmarthen, što će nam omogućiti da smanjimo dvorac Pembroke. Glavne stvari koje su nam potrebne su minobacačke granate, čija je dubina četrnaest i tri četvrtine inča ... Također želimo malo topovskog hica ... Ova usluga koja se obavlja, te siromašne zapuštene zemlje mogu se osloboditi tereta vojska.

Još nemamo oružje i streljivo. Imamo samo dva mala pištolja ... pokušali smo uletjeti u dvorac, ali ljestve su bile prekratke ... pa ljudi nisu mogli prijeći. Izgubili smo nekoliko ljudi, ali uvjeren sam da je neprijatelj izgubio više ... nadamo se da ćemo mu oduzeti zalihe vode za dva dana.

Dvorac Pembroke bio je najjače mjesto koje smo ikada vidjeli ... Imali smo mnogo poteškoća u Walesu ... Imamo očajnog neprijatelja i malo prijatelja, ali moćnog Boga.

Moram vam reći da ako ova ponuda bude odbijena ... bijedu i propast zadesit će ljude s vama, znam odakle naplatiti krv koju prolijevate. Očekujem odgovor u roku od dva sata. Ako ova ponuda bude odbijena, ne šaljite mi više pisma na tu temu.


Priča o dvije Samose

Napisao Ernie Smith dana 16. listopada 2017

Iz razumljivih razloga, Portoriko je trenutno možda glavni američki teritorij u glavama američke javnosti. Otok od 3,5 milijuna potpuno je devastiran uraganom Maria i vjerojatno će proći godine prije nego što se vrati u privid svog normalnog ja - situaciji u kojoj, u najmanju ruku, ne pomaže sadašnji predsjednik.

Tedium, naravno, nije blog s vijestima, ali ponekad pomaže uzeti vijesti i istaknuti ih kroz okvire povijesti.

Imajući to na umu, želio bih provesti trenutak raspravljajući o vremenu u kojem su brzo razmišljanje i koordinacija spasili mnogo života na američkom teritoriju. Teritorij? Američka Samoa, jedno od samo dva teritorija južno od ekvatora. (Drugi, otok Jarvis, akvizicija je guana.)

Prije gotovo točno 100 godina teritorij sa sjedištem u Tihom oceanu bio je obaviješten o pandemiji španjolske gripe koja je tada kružila svijetom, ne ostavljajući ni kamen na kamenu. Odgovoran za smrt više od 20 milijuna ljudi diljem svijeta, ubio je više ljudi nego Prvi svjetski rat, sukob koji je u tom trenutku bio bez presedana.

John Martin Poyer, guverner američke Samoe, koji je imenovala američka mornarica, čuo je vijest o opasnosti od ove bolesti i odmah je poduzeo korake kako bi koordinirao brodove s kopna SAD-a kako bi pomogao u očekivanoj izbijanju.

Njegova je strategija, zapravo, bila stavljanje u karantenu svakoga s tom bolešću na mornaričkim brodovima, s ciljem izoliranja problema. Bio je uspješan - niti jedna osoba na američkoj Samoi nije umrla od španjolske gripe, jednog od samo nekoliko područja u svijetu gdje se to moglo reći.

To sigurno nije bio slučaj u obližnjoj Samoi. Roberta Logana, Poyerovog kolegu, na njegovu je ulogu na isti način imenovao Novi Zeland, a on je bio na čelu tijekom cijelog Prvog svjetskog rata. Logan je držao široku geografsku širinu nad djelovanjem teritorija i bio je osoba koja je mogla spriječiti brzo širenje španjolske gripe od zauzimanja pacifičkih zemalja. No, za razliku od Poyera, nije uspio kontrolirati gripu, dopuštajući brodovima da neopterećeni pristaju, što je dovelo do brzog prevladavanja Samoe. U roku od samo nekoliko tjedana umrla je petina stanovništva teritorija.

Poyer je zauzeo strog pristup karanteni Američke Samoe, zabranivši brodovima sa Samoe, gdje je bolest zavladala, da posjete Američku Samou-što je uznemirilo Logana, nakon što je Poyer odbio brod s poštom sa Samoe. Logan je prekinuo radijski kontakt sa susjednim teritorijem. Osim toga, Poyer je u jednom trenutku ponudio pristup medicinskoj skrbi američke mornarice, uključujući brodove u karanteni. Logan je, očito nerazumijevajući ponudu, odbio, vjerojatno pogoršavajući problem.

Poyerov rad bio je toliko impresivan, osobito u usporedbi s onim što je Logan učinio, da su ljudi koji žive na Samoi odlučili da bi radije da SAD kontroliraju njihov teritorij, a ne Novi Zeland. Od 1919 San Francisco Chronicle članak na tu temu:

Stanovnici tadašnje Njemačke Samoe kažu da je njihova zemlja uništena gripom i kornjašem. Oni gledaju na uspješnu Američku Samou, udaljenu četrdeset milja, i prijete pobunom protiv dominacije Novog Zelanda, prema privatnim savjetima koje je primio John Rothschild iz Tutuile, američka Samoa.

Prema Rothschildovim podacima, starosjedioci pod vlašću Novog Zelanda ne mogu shvatiti zašto je Influenza trebala uzeti jednu četvrtinu njihovog broja i potpuno zanemariti stanovništvo američkih otoka. I ne mogu vidjeti, izvještava se, zašto buba nosorog prijeti vraćanjem novozelandske skupine u zemlju grmlja Bilo je to, dok je taj isti kukac istrijebljen na američkoj Samoi.

Situacija je bila takva da su, prema članku, Samoanci počeli pjevati prepisanu verziju "Zvjezdanog zastavice", ukazujući na razlika između dva teritorija.

Poyer, koji se povukao ubrzo nakon objavljivanja gornjeg članka, umro je herojem 1922. S druge strane, Logana su okrivili za narušavanje odnosa između Novog Zelanda i Samoe.

Kako kaže službena web stranica vlade Novog Zelanda: "Ironično, najvažnije godine Loganova života bile su najmanje uspješne."

(Gore: Rana karta Samoe i Američke Samoe, koju je stvorio George F. Cram na prijelazu u 20. stoljeće. U to vrijeme Samou je kontrolirala Njemačka, ali je na kraju pala pod kontrolu Novog Zelanda prije nego što je postala neovisna. putem Wikimedia Commons)

Vaše je vrijeme upravo izgubio Ernie Smith

Ernie Smith urednik je Tediuma i aktivni snalažitelj interneta. Između svojih brojnih internetskih projekata nalazi vremena za druženje sa suprugom Cat koja je smiješnija od njega.


John Poyer, zaboravljeni junak (ili negativac) građanskog rata

Kad pomislite na građanski rat, veliku pobunu protiv krune koja se dogodila u 17. stoljeću, skloni ste misliti samo na poznate ljude poput Charlesa I. i Olivera Cromwella. Ipak, rat su organizirali i vodili deseci manje poznatih pojedinaca, koji su svi u manjoj ili većoj mjeri pridonijeli uspjehu ili neuspjehu rata.

U Walesu je postojao jedan čovjek koji je, čini se, simbolizirao previranja tog doba, podržavajući prvo parlament, a zatim kralja. Bio je gradonačelnik Pembroka, John Poyer.

Barem je u početku Poyer bio posvećen parlamentarnoj stvari. Bio je to buran i temperamentan čovjek koji si je, nažalost, u relativno kratkom životu stvorio veliki broj neprijatelja.

Osim što je bio gradonačelnik Pembrokea, u godinama koje su prethodile izbijanju rata zapovijedao je i jednom od Pembrokeshireovih obučenih bendova, skupinama običnih građana koji su činili većinu parlamentarnih snaga tijekom prvih mjeseci sukoba.

Parlamentu su bili potrebni ljudi poput Poyera i njegovog Trained Banda jer je do 1642. cijeli južni Wales izašao u korist kralja - osim gradova Pembroke i Tenby.

Tijekom sljedećih nekoliko godina rat u Pembrokeshireu bio je kaotičan, tako da je prvo jedna strana dobila prednost, a zatim druga. John Poyer bio je u gustoći svega, manipulirao je, podmićivao i borio se za napredovanje u parlamentarnom postupku.

Mnogi njegovi postupci bili su uzvišeni, a ponekad i jedva legalni. Na primjer, na Michaelmas 1642, Poyer, kojem je istekao mandat gradonačelnika Pembrokea, odbio je odstupiti.

Novi gradonačelnik imao je izrazito rojalističku sklonost i nije bilo načina da mu Poyer dopusti da preuzme kontrolu. Uredno je zadržao i obnašao dužnost gradonačelnika sljedećih šest godina.

Dvorac i grad Pembroke, pod zapovjedništvom Poyera i generala Rowlanda Laugharnea, brzo su postali ozbiljan trn u oku rojalističkim snagama u Walesu. Prijetnja je bila toliko ozbiljna da su lokalni rojalistički zapovjednici izjavili da će ga, kad zarobe Johna Poyera, staviti u bačvu probušenu ekserima i otkotrljati ga niz brdo u Milford Haven. John Poyer samo je slegnuo ramenima i komentirao da će ga prvo morati uloviti.

Zahvaljujući vojnoj vještini Rowlanda Laugharnea i umješnom političkom manevriranju Poyera, parlamentarne snage u Pembrokeshireu u konačnici su bile uspješne i u svibnju 1646. predajom Karla I. Škotima završio je građanski rat. Parlament je imao jasnu kontrolu nad zemljom i sada je, činilo se, ljudi poput Poyera mogli uživati ​​u plodovima pobjede.

U Pembrokeshireu su loši osjećaji nastavili tinjati. Poyer je pozvan u London da odgovori na optužbe za prisvajanje zemljišta i imovine u okrugu, u vrijednosti od 6000 funti. Optužba je na kraju ništa uspjela, ali John Poyer je bio ljut što bi ga trebao pozvati parlament, upravo oni ljudi za koje je riskirao svoj život.

Već neko vrijeme Laugharneovi vojnici - poput mnogih drugih armija diljem Britanije - odbijali su se raspustiti sve dok im nisu isplaćene zaostale plaće.

Sir Thomas Fairfax, general svih parlamentarnih snaga, sada je naredio Poyeru da se još jednom pojavi pred Odborom za račune i da odustane od kontrole nad Pembrokeom i njegovim dvorcem. Poyer, neobuzdan i, vjerojatno, vrlo nepošten čovjek, odbio je i poslužio se izlikom neplaćenih vojnika. Napustit će dvorac, izjavio je, kad su Laugharneini ljudi dobili plaću koju im duguju.

I tako je zemlja skliznula prema drugom građanskom ratu. Bilo je mnogo drugih uzroka ove druge erupcije građanskog rata, ali ljudi poput Poyera i Laugharnea - koji su bili čvrsti pristaše parlamenta - sada su se izjašnjavali za princa Charlesa, kraljevog sina. Kad je parlament poslao velike snage pod generalom Hortonom da se obračunaju s pobunjenicima u južnom Walesu, John Poyer je jednostavno izjavio:

Na nesreću Poyera i Laugharnea, njihova je vojska poražena u bitci za St Fagans 4. svibnja 1648. i par se vratio na tvrđavu Pembroke kako bi polizali svoje rane i analizirali stanje. Parlamentarne snage ubrzo su se pojavile izvan gradskih zidina i započela je sedmodnevna opsada. Ubrzo je stigla ništa manje osoba od samog Olivera Cromwella da preuzme zapovjedništvo nad opsjednutim postrojbama.

Poyer je, poput Rowlanda Laugharnea, bio neumoran u obrani grada, pojavljivao se na zidovima, vodeći nalete protiv Cromwellovih trupa. No, hrane i vode neizbježno je nestalo, a krajem srpnja grad se predao. John Poyer, zajedno s Laugharne i pukovnicom Rice Powell koji su bili u garnizonu Tenbyja protiv Cromwella, poslani su u London na suđenje kao izdajnici države.

Vojni sud zasjedao je od 4. do 12. travnja 1649. i konačno je vratio krivu presudu. Sva su trojica muškaraca osuđena na smrt zbog udjela u pobuni.

Međutim, Državno vijeće odlučilo se o popustljivosti - samo jedan čovjek mora umrijeti, o njegovoj sudbini će odlučiti dijete koje će izvući ždrijeb kako bi otkrilo tko će se suočiti sa streljačkim vodom. Možda je neizbježno nesretnik bio John Poyer.

Poyer je tijekom godina zasigurno stvorio svoj pravi dio neprijatelja, a nikad se neće saznati je li riječ o namještenom glasanju. No, čini se čudnim da puritanci, koji su mrzili sve oblike kockanja, igraju igru ​​na sreću s tom najdragocjenijom robom, čovjekovim životom.

Poyerovo pogubljenje dogodilo se u Covent Gardenu 25. travnja 1649. godine.

Predvođen mjestom pogubljenja s dvije čete konja i tri pješačke čete, održao je kratak govor priznajući da je vodio "labavi život", ali inzistirajući na tome da se njegova lojalnost parlamentu nikada nije promijenila. Tada je ustrijeljen, umirući s istom hrabrošću i duhom koji je pokazivao cijeli svoj život.

John Poyer bio je karizmatičan, kontradiktoran i samouništavajući lik. Njegove posljednje riječi kasnije je preuzela njegova obitelj i upotrijebila ih kao moto - "Son est contra me" (Sudbina je protiv mene). Bio je to prikladan natpis, iako se moglo tvrditi da Poyerovom sudbinom, na kraju, nije upravljao nitko drugi nego on sam.


ExecutedToday.com

Na današnji dan* 1649. godine John Poyer, pokojni gradonačelnik Pembrokea, ustrijeljen je u londonskim Covent Gardensima zbog prelaska na stranu u Engleskom građanskom ratu.

No, blesavi šeširi u Parlamentu htjeli su demobilizirati veći dio potencijalno opasne vojske, i to bez rješavanja male stvari zaostalih plaća. Poyer je odbio predati svoje zapovjedništvo i dvorac Pembroke parlamentarnom agentu i tražio je bolji dogovor od monarhista. **

Tek mukotrpnom opsadom smanjena je impozantna srednjovjekovna utvrda Pembroke. Poyer, njegov nadređeni Rowland Laugharne i Rice Powell odvučeni su u London i osuđeni na smrt. & Bodež

U zanimljivom zaokretu, odlučeno je da će jedan primjer dokazati točku kao i tri te da će se milost dodijeliti slučajno. Kad su njih troje odbili izvući vlastiti žrijeb, umjesto toga posao je dobilo dijete koje je podijelilo tri papirića. Laugharne i Powell čitali su život od Boga. ” Poyer ’s bili su mrtvi.

Mark Twain se uhvatio u jedinstvenu ulogu djeteta u ovoj smrtonosnoj lutriji i iscijedio je za svaku kap patosa u kratkoj priči, “The Disk smrti ”.

Za razliku od predložene žrtve te priče, Poyer nije imao koristi od posljednjeg sekundnog kromvelovskog sažaljenja. Njegova smrt povezana je s patentom pod naslovom “Deklaracija i govor pukovnika Johna Poyera neposredno prije pogubljenja u Covent-Gardenu u Westminsteru, u srijedu, 25. ožujka, 1649. S načinom njegovog deportiranja i njegovi Prijedlozi narodu Engleske. ” & Bodež

Završivši svoj govor, otišao je na molitvu i odmah ustao, pozvao ljude koji su bili predviđeni za njegovo pogubljenje, njih šest, i dao im znak kada trebaju dati vatru, a ruke, promatrali su njegovo kretanje, koji su nakon nekoliko izraza prijateljima o njemu, pripremili zagrljaj za smrt i bacivši pogled na Nebo, s obje podignute ruke, krvnici (s vatrogasnim bravama) obavili su svoj ured, koji je u jednom trenutku ga je zarobio njegov život, njegov trup je zauzet, odvezen je u treneru, a Souldiery se vratio natrag u White-Hall.

* Nekoliko izvora kaže 21. travnja, ali velika većina slaže se 25. i#8212 kao i primarni citati dostupni u komentarima o njegovoj smrti iz 17. stoljeća (npr. “ bio je 25. ovog trenutka Aprill biti u srijedu, čuvan od White-Halla u vagonu, do mjesta pogubljenja ” u “Deklaraciji i govoru pukovnika Johna Poyera prije pogubljenja … ”)

** D.E. Kennedy primjećuje da podjela između Parlamenta i Royalista nije bila tako velika kao što se moglo zamisliti — i da je sam Cromwell u to vrijeme pregovarao s budućim Charlesom II kao prikladnim za zaobilaženje Charlesa I.

& bodež Red i dosje velške neposlušnosti u osnovi su iskliznuli, iskaz milosrđa od Lord Protector u kojem Irska ne bi uživala.

& Bodež Naslov obećava mnogo više dramskih skela nego dvije i pol zaboravljive stranice koje isporučuju — u osnovi, da je Poyer umro (a) pokajnik (b) anglikanac i (c) želeći mir.


John Randal Phillips

Dosuđena je naknada za imanje uvjetno identificirano kao Lamberts na Barbadosu, a moguće i za još dva imanja, Lascell [e] s i Britton.

Međutim, ovdje postoji mogućnost zabune. U 1830 -ima bila su živa najmanje tri Johna Randala [l] Phillipsa.

Umrli su za dva Johna Randala Phillipsa: Q3 1837 Isle of Wight i Q4 1845 Newton Abbot Devonshire. John Randal Phillips i J.R. Phillips junior, obojica su svjedočili vjenčanju Philipa Lovella Phillipsa (q.v.) s Mary Anne Hawkes Collyer u St. Giles Camberwellu 09/08/1832. John Randall Phillips također je prikazan kao australski kolonist, koji je stigao u Fremantle 25/02/1830 i tamo umro 1852. Philip Lovell Phillips prikazan je kao rođen na Barbadosu 26/10/1805, jedini sin Johna Randalla Phillipsa i Elizabeth Went [ sic]. Taj se John Randall Phillips navodno vratio u Englesku, živio u Tor Villi i umro 1845. u Newton Abbottu. Philip Lovell Phillips prikazan je kao zet evanđeoskog propovjednika iz Peckhama, Williama Benga Collyera.

John Randall [sic] Phillips se oženio Elizabeth Went Lovell, Winterbourne Gloucestershire 14.10.1803.

John Randall Phillips bio je jedan od pretplatnika Johna Poyera Povijest Barbadosa (1808).

1841. John Phillips u dobi od 70 godina živio je s Lovell Phillipsom u dobi od 30 godina, liječnikom u Torvilleu, Devon.

Postoji jedan zapis koji je zabilježio Oliver: 'Sveto u sjećanje na Johna Randalla Phillipsa iz Lamberta na ovom otoku. Umro je u Torquay Devonu 9. rujna 1845. u dobi od 86 godina. Također i od Elizabeth Went, supruge gore navedenih i kćeri Philipa Lovella Esqa. Umrla je u Edinburghu 20. srpnja 1831. u dobi od 61 godine. '

John Randal Phillips koji je umro u Rydeu opisan je na njegovom nadgrobnom spomeniku kao 'John Randal Phillips jnr s otoka Barbadosa, dugogodišnja bolest, umro je 29. 08. 1837. u dobi od 38 godina'.

Genealoški izvori prikazuju Johna Randalla Phillipsa iz Zapadne Australije (1789.-1852.) Kao sina Georgea Phillipsa iz Turnhama Greena.

Stoga se čini da je John Randall Phillips, koji je umro u Devonu 1845., a ne čovjek koji je umro u Rydeu 1837., bio otac Philipa Lovella Phillipsa i bio je dobitnik na imanju identificiranom kao Lamberts, a možda i za druge nagrade. John Randall Phillips koji je umro u Rydeu vjerojatno je bio protivtužitelj u Haggatt Hallu. Dvojica muškaraca opet su vjerojatno bili ujak i nećak ili geat-ujak i pranećak. Veza s australskim kolonistom ipak ostaje nejasna, a ovaj John Randal Phillips u Australiji mogao je vjerovatno biti nagrađen za Brittonse i/ili Lascella [e] ili više ili vjerojatnije odvjetnika na Jamajci sredinom 1820-ih.

Izvori

T71/895 Barbados zahtjev br. 92 (Brittons ili Brettons) T71/897 Barbados zahtjev br. 2545 T71/899 Barbadoški zahtjevi br. 4368 (Lascell [s]) i 4615 (okvirno identificirano kao Lamberts).

T71/895 Barbados zahtjev br. 139 Protutužba identificira Johna Randala Phillipsa iz Rydea, Isle of Wight, kao ustupitelja Thomasa Wenta. Nagrade br. 92, 2545, 4368 i 4615 veže isti odvjetnik, Edward Thomas.

FreeUKGen, Besplatna baza podataka o BMD-u Engleske i Walesa, Smrti, 1837-1983 [baza podataka na mreži] Ancestry.com, London, Engleska, brakovi i zabrane 1754-1921 [baza podataka na mreži] http://www.valuingheritage.com.au/adoptagrave/Phillips_George.html [pristupljeno 27.04.2012.]. http://www.wbcollyer.org/index.php?p=1_5_Who-s-Who [pristupljeno 27. 04. 2102.].

Ancestry.com, Engleska i Wales, brakovi i zabrane, 1538.-1940 [baza podataka na mreži].

John Poyer, Povijest Barbadosa, od prvog otkrića otoka 1605. godine do pristupanja lorda Seafortha 1801. godine (London, J. Mawman, 1808), str xxv.

Vere Langford Oliver, Monumentalni natpisi na Barbadosu str. 12 točka 60.


John Poyer, Građanski ratovi u Pembrokeshireu i Britanska revolucija


‘Ova je briljantna knjiga, koja ne samo da transformira naše viđenje “urncoat ” Johna Poyera, već pruža i jedan od najživljih, dobro informiranih i sofisticiranih izvještaja ikad napisanih o građanskim ratovima u sedamnaestom stoljeću u Walesu . ’
-Profesor Mark Stoyle, Sveučilište Southampton

‘Ovo uzbudljivo štivo osporava prethodna predstavljanja Poyera, nudeći prvi pogled na čovjeka pod njegovim vlastitim uvjetima, a ne kroz oči njegovih neprijatelja. Pritom autor rasvjetljava frakcijsku politiku unutar parlamentarnog pitanja na izvrsnoj dubini i s velikom osjetljivošću na lokalni kontekst. ’
-Profesor Andrew Hopper, Centar za englesku lokalnu povijest, Sveučilište u Leicesteru

'Napisano je na tako pristupačan, brz način. fascinantna priča '. Poslušajte kako Lloyd Bowen raspravlja o svojoj knjizi ovdje https://newbooksnetwork.com/lloyd-bowen-john-poyer-the-civil-wars-in-pembrokeshire-and-the-british-revolutions-u-wales-press-2021

‘Poyer se pobunio protiv parlamenta koji je pobijedio u prvom građanskom ratu (1642-6), a njegovi su postupci pomogli u pokretanju niza pobuna i pobuna pokrajina koje su, zajedno s invazijom Škotskih zavjeta u ljeto 1648, zajednički su poznati kao 𠆍rugi građanski rat ’. No Poyer je također imao fascinantnu povijest prije travnja 1648. koja nam može pomoći da bolje razumijemo njegove motivacije i postupke tijekom tog burnog proljeća i ljeta. ’
-Pročitajte odlomak Johna Poyera, Građanskih ratova u Pembrokeshireu i Britanske revolucije u Booklaunch -u na stranici 5 https://bit.ly/3akxSmt

'Ovo je sjajna knjiga koja pokušava pomno pregledati dokaze (i njihov nedostatak) o jednoj posebnoj crtici koju su raniji znanstvenici zanemarili kao glavnog igrača u propagandnim ratovima iza građanskih ratova. Stoga je to dobra knjiga za kupnju svih vrsta knjižnica i trebala bi poslužiti kao zanimljiv dopunski udžbenik za diplomske i preddiplomske razrede koji pokrivaju ovo razdoblje britanske povijesti i književnosti. '
- Pregled u književnom časopisu Pennsylvania: proljeće 2021., stranica 17. Cijeli pregled pročitajte ovdje https://www.amazon.com/dp/B095MGQNQB

Sadržaj

Karte
Kratice
Zahvalnice
Predgovor
Poglavlje 1: Mjesto radnje: John Poyer i rani Stuart Pembrokeshire, c.1606 �
Poglavlje 2: Irska kriza i dolazak građanskog rata, 1640 �
Poglavlje 3: Saveznici i neprijatelji: Poyer i Pembroke tijekom Prvog građanskog rata
Poglavlje 4: Borba za nadmoć: Poyer i poslijeratna politika, 1646 �
Poglavlje 5: Put do pobune, kolovoz 1647. –ožujak 1648
Poglavlje 6: Poyer, Powell i princ, ožujak – travnja 1648
Poglavlje 7: Opsada Pembroka, svibanj –srpnja 1648
Poglavlje 8: Osveta i revolucija: Poyer, tisak i parlamentarna pravda, kolovoz 1648. i#travnja 1649. godine
Poglavlje 9: Posliježivot
Dodatak: Vremenska crta građanskih ratova u Pembrokeshireu


ExecutedToday.com

Na današnji dan 1649. Oliver Cromwell dao je trojici vođa svoje vojske, radničke klase Levellers, streljati o zidove crkve u Burfordu.

Revolucionarna vojska s kojom je Cromwell svrgnuo kralja Charlesa I. došla je u krizu 1649. jer su se interesi viših časnika i klase zemljoposjednika i trgovaca iz kojih su došli sukobili s interesima običnog vojnika.

Ovaj demokratski i klasno osviješten pokret Leveler izazvao je simpatije kasnijih radikala, pa bi bilo teško glatko nazvati tu pažnju anakronističkim izravnavačem Williama Walyna koji je čak i anticipirao Marxov jezik odbacujući Magna Cartu kao taj nered. #8221* Ovo je Engleska čiji kapitalistički oblik jasno dolazi do izražaja.

Flint je udario čelik kad su vojni velikani donijeli gadan izbor Sophie na trupe čija je plaća bila u dubokim zaostacima: napustiti vojsku (oduzeti zaostalu plaću) ili napustiti zemlju (napasti Irsku). Obje su opcije zaokružene u korist države i njezinih novčanih interesa, na račun nižih redova.

Odmah su započele pobune vojske, a masivna londonska povorka koja je ponijela pogubljenog Levelera Roberta Lockyera do njegova groba dokazala je dubinu i opasnost javnog osjećaja.

Početkom svibnja 1649. pukovnik Scrope's konjska pukovnija — još jedan od onih koji su ponudili mogućnost služenja u Irskoj slijedio je njihov primjer, prigrabivši bojeve pukovnije, ponovno birajući svoje časnike i izlazeći iz Banbury preko ravnice Salisbury na sastanak s drugim nezadovoljnim vojnicima. Prema riječima jednog preživjelog,

čitavo tkivo Commonwealtha palo je u najgrublju i najgloblju tiraniju koju su Englezi stenjali pod … što nas je, s obzirom na posebne, najnepodnošljivije zloupotrebe i nezadovoljstva, dovelo do jednoglasnog odbijanja odlaska … sve dok nam Vijeće po vlastitom izboru nije dalo potpunu satisfakciju i sigurnost kao vojnicima i pučanima.

Cromwell je na umu imao drugačije zadovoljstvo.

Uz pomoć izaslanika poslanog da zaustavi pobunjenike diverzijskim pregovorima, Cromwell i Thomas Fairfax uspjeli su iznenaditi 1500 Levellera koji su kampirali u Burfordu ponoćnim napadom u noći s 13. na 14. svibnja. Do jutra je 340 vojnika bilo zatvoreno u crkvi Burforda kao zatvorenici.

Tragični rasplet ove pobune u Banburyju bilo je pogubljenje tri vojnika, korneta Thompsona, kaplara Perkinsa i Privatne crkve. Ploča na tom mjestu i dalje obilježava taj događaj.

Krajem mjeseca Cromwell je potvrđivao Parlamentu da su svi pobunjeni Levelleri pacificirani …, a u kolovozu je pustošio Irsku kako je planirano.

Najbliža subota 17. svibnja svake se godine u Burfordu obilježava kao Dan izravnavača. (Sljedeća od ovog pisanja je subota, 20. svibnja 2017.)

* Biblijska aluzija bila je aktualna u kulturi. Cromwell se na istu frazu pozvao nekoliko godina kasnije kada je odbacio Kršni parlament.

Na ovaj dan..

Moguće povezane egzekucije:

1649: Sveti Jean de Brébeuf, misionar na Huronu

Na taj je datum autohtoni Irokez u blizini današnjeg Midlenda u Ontariju mučenik isusovački misionar Saint Jean de Brébeuf.

Brebeuf was of Norman stock, kin to poet Georges de Brebeuf.

Ordained in 1622, Brebeuf soon decamped to the New World to Christianize the natives.

There he teamed up with another Jesuit missionary named Gabriel Lalemant and established the Sainte-Marie among the Hurons mission.

As the name advertises, this outpost aimed to minister to the Hurons (Wyandot) to that end, Brebeuf — who learned the local tongue well enough to write a catechism and a dictionary — composed the still-beloved Christmas song “Huron Carol”.

Brebeuf’s own missives recording Huron established him an energetic chronicler who has been styled Canada’s first serious ethnographer. For instance, Brebeuf on the POW treatment he saw the Huron dish out:

when they seize some of their enemies, they treat them with all the cruelty they can devise. Five or six days will sometimes pass in assuaging their wrath, and in burning them at a slow fire and they are not satisfied with seeing their skins entirely roasted, — they open the legs, the thighs, the arms, and the most fleshy parts, and thrust therein glowing brands, or red-hot hatchets … After having at last brained a victim, if he was a brave man, they tear out his heart, roast it on the coals, and distribute it in pieces to the young men they think that this renders them courageous … we hope, with the assistance of Heaven, that the knowledge of the true God will entirely banish from this Country such barbarity. (From the Jesuit Relations, volume 10)

Brebeuf regrettably foreshadowed his own ghastly fate, for during his ministry, the Huron and Iroquois went to war. No fewer than eight men posted to Brebeuf’s mission were martyred during 1640s Huron-Iroquois wars.

On March 16, 1649, Iroquois captured Brebeuf and Lalemant, and subjected them to a horrific death just like the sort of thing Brebeuf had seen inflicted by the Huron. Other Jesuit missionaries recorded the tortures from eyewitness accounts given in the subsequent weeks:

As soon as they were taken captive, they were stripped naked, and some of their nails were torn out and the welcome which they received upon entering the village of St. Ignace was a hailstorm of blows with sticks upon their shoulders, their loins, their legs, their breasts, their bellies, and their faces, — there being no part of their bodies which did not then endure its torment.

Father Jean de Brebeuf, overwhelmed under the burden of these blows, did not on that account lose care for his flock seeing himself surrounded with Christians whom he had instructed, and who were in captivity with him, he said to them: “My children, let us lift our eyes to Heaven at the height of our afflictions let us remember that God is the witness of our sufferings, and will soon be our exceeding great reward. Let us die in this faith and let us hope from his goodness the fulfillment of his promises. I have more pity for you than for myself but sustain with courage the few remaining torments. They will end with our lives the glory which follows them will never have an end.” “Echon,” they said to him (this is the name which the Hurons gave the Father), “our spirits will be in Heaven when our bodies shall be suffering on earth. Pray to God for us, that he may show us mercy we will invoke him even until death.”

Some Huron Infidels — former captives of the Iroquois, naturalized among them, and former enemies of the Faith — were irritated by these words, and because our Fathers in their captivity had not their tongues captive. They cut off the hands of one, and pierce the other with sharp awls and iron points they apply under their armpits and upon their loins hatchets heated red in the fire, and put a necklace of these about their necks in such a way that all the motions of their bodies gave them a new torture. For, if they attempted to lean forward, the red-hot hatchets which hung behind them burned the shoulders everywhere and if they thought to avoid that pain, bending back a little, their stomachs and breasts experienced a similar torment if they stood upright, without leaning to one side or the other, these glowing hatchets, touching them alike on all sides, were a double torture to them. They put about them belts of bark, filled with pitch and resin, to which they set fire, which scorched the whole of their bodies.

At the height of these torments, Father Gabriel Lallement lifted his eyes to Heaven, clasping his hands from time to time, and uttering sighs to God, whom he invoked to his aid. Father Jean de Brebeuf suffered like a rock, insensible to the fires and the flames, without uttering any cry, and keeping a profound silence, which astonished his executioners themselves: no doubt, his heart was then reposing in his God. Then, returning to himself, he preached to those Infidels, and still more to many good Christian captives, who had compassion on him.

Those butchers, indignant at his zeal, in order to hinder him from further speaking of God, girdled his mouth, cut off his nose, and tore off his lips but his blood spoke much more loudly than his lips had done and, his heart not being yet torn out, his tongue did not fail to render him service until the last sigh, for blessing God for these torments, and for animating the Christians more vigorously than he had ever done.

In derision of holy Baptism, — which these good Fathers had so charitably administered even at the breach, and in the hottest of the fight,—those wretches, enemies of the Faith, bethought themselves to baptize them with boiling water. Their bodies were entirely bathed with it, two or three times, and more, with biting gibes, which accompanied these torments. “We baptize thee,” said these wretches, “to the end that thou mayst be blessed in Heaven for without proper Baptism one cannot be saved.” Others added, mocking, “we treat thee as a friend, since we shall be the cause of thy greatest happiness up in Heaven thank us for so many good offices, — for, the more thou sufferest, the more thy God will reward thee.”

These were Infidel Hurons, former captives of the Iroquois, and, of old, enemies of the Faith, — who, having previously had sufficient instruction for their salvation, impiously abused it, — in reality, for the glory of the Fathers but it is much to be feared that it was also for their own misfortune.

The more these torments were augmented, the more the Fathers entreated God that their sins should not be the cause of the reprobation of these poor blind ones, whom they pardoned with all their heart. It is surely now that they say in repose, Transivimus per ignem et aquam, et eduxisti nos in refrigerium.

When they were fastened to the post where they suffered these torments, and where they were to die, they knelt down, they embraced it with joy, and kissed it piously as the object of their desires and their love, and as a sure and final pledge of their salvation. They were there some time in prayers, and longer than those butchers were willing to permit them. They put out Father Gabriel Lallement’s eyes and applied burning coals in the hollows of the same.

Their tortures were not of the same duration. Father Jean de Brebeuf was at the height of his torments at about three o’clock on the same day of the capture, the 16th day of March, and rendered up his soul about four o ‘ clock in the evening. Father Gabriel Lallement endured longer, from six o’clock in the evening until about nine o’clock the next morning, the seventeenth of March.

Before their death, both their hearts were torn out, by means of an opening above the breast and those Barbarians inhumanly feasted thereon, drinking their blood quite warm, which they drew from its source with sacrilegious hands. While still quite full of life, pieces of flesh were removed from their thighs, from the calves of the legs, and from their arms, — which those executioners placed on coals to roast, and ate in their sight.

They had slashed their bodies in various parts and, in order to increase the feeling of pain, they had thrust into these wounds red-hot hatchets.

Father Jean de Brebeuf had had the skin which covered his skull torn away they had cut off his feet and torn the flesh from his thighs, even to the bone, and had split, with the blow of a hatchet, one of his jaws in two.

Father Gabriel Lallement had received a hatchet- blow on the left ear, which they had driven into his brain, which appeared exposed we saw no part of his body, from the feet even to the head, which had not been broiled, and in which he had not been burned alive,—even the eyes, into which those impious ones had thrust burning coals.

They had broiled their tongues, repeatedly putting into their mouths flaming brands, and burning pieces of bark, — not willing that they should invoke, in dying, him for whom they were suffering, and who could never die in their hearts. I have learned all this from persons worthy of credence, who have seen it, and reported it to me personally, and who were then captives with them, — but who having been reserved to be put to death at another time, found means to escape.

But let us leave these objects of horror, and these monsters of cruelty since one day all those parts will be endowed with an immortal glory, the greatness of their torments will be the measure of their happiness, and, from now on, they live in the repose of the Saints, and will dwell in it forever.

Brebeuf’s intercultural legacy allegedly lives on in sport form. Though it’s unverifiable folklore, it is said that Brebeuf saw Iroquois tribesmen playing the game of baggataway and, reckoning the sticks used to manipulate the ball resembled bishops’ croziers, conferred upon the game the name lacrosse.

Europeanized versions of this game (“with a few genteel refinements”) remain wildly popular in Canada, and are growing throughout North America. Lax bros can be found especially in the environs of well-heeled private high schools … like Brebeuf Jesuit Prep School (Indianapolis, Indiana).

On this day..

Possibly related executions:

1649: Robert Lockyer, Leveller

On this date in 1649, Robert Lockyer (or Lockier) was shot before the scenic backdrop of London’s St. Paul’s Cathedral* for the Leveller-inspired Bishopsgate mutiny.

These weeks following the epochal execution of the late king Charles I were also the climax of a pivotal intra-party conflict among the triumphant Parliamentarians … one whose class dimensions map a lot more readily to a modern template. Levellers were, “in a small way, the precursors of the ‘Socialists’ of 1849” in the words of this popular history.

The prosperous gentry represented by the Grandee faction were just fine with the whip hand they’d obtained in government by overturning the monarchy against them were arrayed the more radical Levellers (or “Agitators”) who could not fail to notice that they had no say in electing the Parliament upheld by their victorious arms, and an oligarchy governing them that bore a suspicious resemblance to the supposedly defeated nobility.

Meanwhile, up in high statecraft, Oliver Cromwell was preparing to make his name accursed of Ireland by smashing up the island and the Grandees hit upon an arrangement as expedient for fiscal ambitions as for territorial: the soldiers assigned to this expedition would have the opportunity to opt out of it, for the low low price of forfeiting the substantial back pay they were due from those years of civil war — pay whose fulfillment was naturally a chief Leveller demand.

How did this cunning plan to pillage the soldiery’s pensions to conquer Ireland go over in the ranks? Reader, not well.

Since the same reason that shall subject them unto us in generall, or any of us singly, may subject us unto them or any other that shall subdue now how contrary this is to the common interest of mankind let all the world judge, for a people that desire to live free, must almost equally with themselves, defend others from subjection, the reason is because the subjecting of others make(s) the subdued strive for Dominion over you, since that is the only way you have left them to acquire their common liberty.**

So there was da, on top of that.

Grumblings gave way to refusals to march, and the refusal by a regiment stationed in Bishopsgate to leave London lest it also leave its leverage soon became the eponymous mutiny of this post — the Bishopsgate Mutiny.

Grandees quelled this particular insubordination without need of bloodshed, but thought it meet to deliver a little anyway as proof in this fraught political environment against the next such affair. Six of the soldiers drew military death sentences Cromwell pardoned five, but let known Leveller/Agitator firebrand Lockyer go to his death over the appeals of Leveller leaders like John Lilburne and Richard Overton.

The signal was unmistakable — certainly to the thousands who donned Leveller colors to follow Lockyer’s funeral procession through London.

In the days following Lockyer’s execution, several Leveller-inspired regiments would openly rise … what proved to be the movement’s last great stand, efficiently crushed by Cromwell.

*The Parliamentarians had twisted high church dogmatists by putting Old St. Paul’s Cathedral to profane use as a cavalry stable, which employment actually made it a sort-of suitable place for a military execution. (The current structure was rebuilt on the same site after the previous church succumbed to the Great Fire of London.)

** From Mercurius Militaris, quoted by Norah Carlin, “The Levellers and the Conquest of Ireland in 1649,” The Historical Journal, June 1987 — which, however, makes the case that while the Levellers were obviously not cool with the pay expropriation, their opinion on the Ireland conquest in the abstract was far from uniformly anti-imperial.

On this day..

Possibly related executions:

1649: John Poyer, the lucky winner

On this date* in 1649, John Poyer, late the mayor of Pembroke, was shot at London’s Covent Gardens for switching sides in the English Civil War.

But the silly hats in Parliament wanted much of the potentially dangerous army to demobilize, and do so without settling the small matter of its back pay. Poyer refused to hand over his command and Pembroke Castle to a Parliamentary agent, and sought a better deal from monarchists.**

Only with a painstaking siege was the imposing medieval fortress of Pembroke reduced. Poyer, his superior Rowland Laugharne, and Rice Powell were hauled to London and condemned to death.&dagger

In an interesting twist, it was decided that one example would prove the point as well as three, and to allot the clemencies by chance. When the three refused to draw their own lots, a child was given the job instead, and distributed three slips of paper. Laugharne and Powell read “Life given by God.” Poyer’s was deathly blank.

Mark Twain latched onto the singular role of a child in this deadly lottery, and wrung it for every drop of pathos in a short story, “The Death Disk”.

Unlike the proposed victim of that story, Poyer did not benefit from any last-second Cromwellian pity. His death is related in the zippily titled “The Declaration and Speech of Colonell John Poyer Immediately Before his Execution in Covent-Garden neer Westminster, on Wednesday, being the 25 of this instant April, 1649. With the manner of his deportment, and his Proposals to the people of England.”&Dagger

Having ended his speech, he went to prayers, and immediately rising up again, called the men designed for his execution to him, which were six in number, and giving them the sign when they should give fire, which was by holding up both his hands, they observed his motion, who after some few expressions to his friends about him, prepared an embracement for death, and casting his eyes to Heaven, with both hands lifted up, the Executioners (with their fire locks) did their Office, who at one voley bereav’d him of his life, his corps being taken up, was carryed away in a Coach, and the Souldiery remanded back again to White-Hall.

* A few sources say April 21, but the overwhelming majority concur on the 25th — as do the primary citations available in 17th-century comments on his death (e.g., “he was upon the 25 of this instant Aprill being Wednesday, guarded from White-Hall in a Coach, to the place of execution” in “The Declaration and speech of Colonell John Poyer before his execution…”)

** D.E. Kennedy observes that the divide between Parliament and Royalist was not so bright as might be imagined — and that Cromwell himself was at this time negotiating with the future Charles II as an expedient to get around Charles I.

&dagger The rank and file of Welsh insubordination basically skated, a display of clemency from the Lord Protector that Ireland would not enjoy.

&Dagger The title promises much more scaffold drama than two and a half forgettable pages deliver — basically, that Poyer died (a) penitent (b) Anglican and (c) wishing for peace.

On this day..

Possibly related executions:

1649: Charles I

On this date in 1649, the struggle between parliament and crown cost the Stuart monarch Charles I his head.

Charles‘ political clumsiness and unreconstructed authoritarianism had seen the realm whose unitary sovereignty he insisted upon blunder from disaster to disaster: into bankruptcy, military defeat, religious conflict and the English Civil War.

The assignation of cause and consequence in that war’s genesis has much exercised historians.

What is beyond dispute is that the confrontation between monarch and subject, pitting against each other political and economic epochs, theories of state and power, rates as one of history’s most captivating courtroom dramas.

Charles refused to answer the court’s charge of treason, occasioned most particularly by the king’s fomenting the Second Civil War while already a defeated prisoner of parliament following the first Civil War. He rested firmly on royal prerogatives against what some interlocutors take to be an almost desperate plea by his judges for some hint of acknowledgment that could open the door to compromise:

[A] King cannot be tried by any superior jurisdiction on earth. But it is not my case alone — it is the freedom and the liberty of the people of England. And do you pretend what you will, I stand more for their liberties — for if the power without law may make laws, may alter the fundamental laws of the kingdom, I do not know what subject he is in England that can be sure of his life or anything that he calls his own. Therefore, when that I came here I did expect particular reasons to know by what law, what authority, you did proceed against me here.

It must be borne in mind that the trial of a king was a completely unprecedented event. Charles might be forgiven his attitude, even if it smacked of the impolitic high-handedness that had forced this deadly test of powers.

Parliament’s position — here in the words of its President — is distinctly in the stream of political discourse (if not always actual practice) ascendant in the West to this day.

Sir, as the law is your superior, so truly, sir, there is something that is superior to the law and that is indeed the parent or author of the law — and that is the people of England.

And therefore, sir, for this breach of trust when you are called to account, you are called to account by your superiors — “when a king is summoned to judgment by the people, the lesser is summoned by the greater.”

The modern and the medieval, facing each other at the bar.


A fragment from a World War II bomb-damaged and only-recently-rediscovered Hippolyte Delaroche painting situating Charles in the Christlike pose of enduring the mockery of his captors.

Charles played his lordly disdain to the end, refusing to admit parliament’s jurisdiction by making any sort of plea.

The line between heroic defiance and pig-headed obstinacy being very much in the eye of the beholder, the confrontation is typically played straight-up for its arresting clash of principles — as in the 1970 biopic Cromwell, with Alec Guinness as the monarch: Probably more troubling for the parliamentary party than the regicide taboo was consideration that the execution would transfer royalist loyalties from a man safely imprisoned to an heir beyond their power, who could be expected to (as in fact he did) resume the civil war.

Competing philosophies expounded for the competing interests the dispute involved the era’s intellectual titans, in conflict over the most fundamental concepts of the state. Thomas Hobbes wrote his magnum opus The Leviathan as a royalist exile in Paris, and its abhorrence for rebellion and divided sovereignty unmistakably reflects the English Civil War experience. John Milton earned his bread as a republican polemicist his poetic celebration of Satan’s failed rebellion in Paradise Lost, written after the Stuart restoration, can be read as a political critique.

It’s conventionally thought that the beheading was conducted by a radical minority, though that supposition is debatable, colored as it is by the ultimate restoration of the crown. But although England would have a king again, the weight of political authority would steadily, permanently, gravitate towards parliament, organ of the merchant classes who would steer England henceforward.

Did it have the right? Two implacable powers each claimed an indivisible object “between equal rights, force decides.” So on this cold winter’s afternoon — Charles wore thick undergarments, so he would not shiver with the appearance of fright — the deposed king was marched to a scaffold erected at Whitehall. He gave a short final address, with the famous words for his principle of martyrdom — “a sovereign and a subject are clean different things” — then laid his head on a low block, where a masked executioner (never definitively identified) cleanly chopped it off.

After the monarchy’s restoration, Charles was canonized as a saint by the Church of England: he’s still the last person so venerated, an odd salute to a mortal career of unalloyed arrogance and incompetence. Observance of the cult was toned down in the 19th century, although a Society of King Charles the Martyr dedicated to its preservation still exists monarchists of a more secular inclination also continue to mark his martyrdom on this anniversary.

“The most interesting thing about King Charles the First is that he was five foot six inches tall at the start of his reign, but only four foot eight inches tall at the end of it.”


Bilješke

There is no contents page. There is no copyright page. Some text is obscured by the binding.

Accession 01649 Addeddate 2020-03-05 20:51:03 Associated-names Frere, George Frere, Henry Lonsdale, James Lowther, Earl of, 1736-1802 Call number D768 .S559h1 Camera Sony Alpha-A6000 (Control) Digital 1 External-identifier urn:oclc:record:263027213 Foldoutcount 0 Full_bib_id 57291147 Identifier shorthistoryofba00unkn Identifier-ark ark:/13960/t6sz4vr4w Invoice 81 Ocr ABBYY FineReader 11.0 (Extended OCR) Openlibrary_edition OL27925013M Openlibrary_work OL20651558W Page-progression lr Page_number_confidence 100 Pages 142 Physical 20 Ppi 300 References Sabin 3288 Ragatz, L.J. Brit. Caribbean history, p. 182 Handler, J.S. Barbados history, p. 41 Adams, T.R. Amer. controversy, 68-9a Sowerby, E.M. Cat. of the lib. of Thomas Jefferson, 465 English short title catalogue T48168 Republisher_date 20200305144941 Republisher_operator [email protected] Republisher_time 711 Scandate 20200207220631 Scanner ttscribe1.providence.archive.org Scanningcenter tt_providence Size viii, 121, [3] p. 19 cm. (8vo) Tts_version 1.64-initial-45-g1252243

POYER, JOHN (died 1649), mayor of Pembroke,

A leading merchant of Pembroke town. He was active in local affairs and in command of the trained band. On 17 February 1642 he wrote to Sir Hugh Owen of Orielton, Member of Parliament for Pembroke borough, to draw his attention to the undefended state of Pembrokeshire in view of the insurrection in Ireland, whence refugees were arriving daily in the county. Later in the year, on the outbreak of the Civil War, he organized the defence of Pembroke town and castle, forcibly retaining the office of mayor and becoming governor of the castle. He was joined by Rowland Laugharne and Rice Powell, and together with them vigorously maintained the Parliamentary cause. When the Royalist commander in west Wales, Richard Vaughan, 2nd earl of Carbery, entered Pembrokeshire in August 1643, he failed to induce Pembroke to capitulate. It became the base for the Parliamentary offensive when opportunity offered and a retreat when difficulties arose. Poyer himself is only recorded as having been the leader in one attack when he captured Carew castle (10 March 1644). His activities involved him in serious disputes with the members of the county committee, some of whom he accused of being half-hearted in the cause. He was in London in December 1645 defending himself against charges of not giving a proper account of moneys he had received and other allegations made by his opponents. He appears to have remained there for several months. When general hostilities ceased in 1647 Parliament decided to reduce its military forces by disbanding supernumeraries. The men who had fought in west Wales were included in this order. General Fairfax sent one colonel Fleming to take over the governorship of Pembroke castle from Poyer as part of this policy. Poyer refused to hand it over. He seems to have regarded the possession of it as an important asset in view of his quarrels with members of the county committee and the claims he was putting forward for payment for disbursements and arrears. Fleming showed a willingness to treat with him but Poyer proved obdurate. There is no doubt that he was encouraged in his defiance by Royalist agents. He was in touch with prince Charles and received a commission from him issued at S. Germains on 3 April 1648. Poyer's action led to a widespread opposition to disbandment and Rice Powell, in the absence of Rowland Laugharne, took command of the resistance. After the defeat of the combined ex-Parliamentary and Royalist forces at S. Fagans (8 May 1648) a remnant escaped to Pembroke where the siege was conducted by Oliver Cromwell. It did not surrender until 11 July, when the garrison was greatly reduced and there was no prospect of help from the Royalists. Poyer, together with Rowland Laugharne and Rice Powell, was condemned to death but lots were drawn as to which should be executed. Poyer drew the fatal blank and was shot at Covent Garden on the morning of 25 April 1649. His wife, Elizabeth, petitioned Charles II for a grant on the ground that her husband had lost ٦,000 in the Royal cause. She was given a sum of ١,000, payable at the rate of 𧷤 a year.


John Poyer, the Civil Wars in Pembrokeshire and the British Revolutions

Many years ago, I attended a lecture given under the auspices of the Historical Association at Cardiff University. Chatting to one of the steadfast supporters of the local HA branch following the talk, I mentioned that I was doing some research into the civil wars of the mid-seventeenth century. “Oh”, she replied, “it is terrible what they did to poor John Poyer”.

I was surprised that she should know of Poyer, but, upon reflection, the pathos and tragedy of his final days have meant that his death is rather better known than his life. John Poyer, considered a rebel by the parliamentarian party for whom he had once fought, was placed on trial for his life at Whitehall in the spring of 1649. One of three men sentenced to death by a court martial, the head of parliament’s New Model Army, Sir Thomas Fairfax, decided to show mercy and determined that only one of them should be executed. Consequently, it was ordered that the men should draw lots to see who would face the firing squad. The men decided that an innocent child should undertake this terrible task and he drew a blank piece of paper for John Poyer who was consequently shot at Covent Garden on 25 April 1649.

This pathetic scene made a considerable impression upon later generations. The American novelist Mark Twain adapted the tale for his own purposes in the story, ‘The Death Disk’ in 1901. The great director of silent films D. W. Griffith in turn adapted Twain’s narrative for the screen in 1909. Poyer’s dramatic denouement continued to whisper down the centuries.

I also knew of Poyer’s end, but not too much about the rest of his life. As I began digging, however, I became convinced that his story was one worth telling and that there was much more to this man than merely his tragic death scene.

U John Poyer, the Civil War in Pembrokeshire and the British Revolutions, I present an account of this remarkable man’s life, death and legacy, while also discussing the times in which he lived and the society in which he moved. Poyer led a life that was surprising and full of incident, even for this period of upheaval and civil war.

He was a man of truly obscure origins: he seems to have been a servant in the household of a wealthy merchant, but struck out on his own, becoming a merchant and glover in the somewhat dilapidated outpost of Pembroke in south-west Wales. Poyer possessed a forceful personality and was full of drive and ambition, rising to become Pembroke’s chief magistrate, its mayor, just as a Catholic rebellion in Ireland drove waves of refugees onto the Welsh coast, and as the clouds of civil war between parliament and King Charles I gathered over the land.

In largely royalist Wales, Poyer stood out as a leader of the meagre parliamentarian party. Accompanied by his brother-in-law and future Major General, Rowland Laugharne, Poyer repaired Pembroke’s imposing medieval defences and turned it into a parliamentarian point of strength on the strategically crucial Irish Sea.

Poyer, however, was an intemperate and uncompromising man whom even his allies found it difficult to like. After parliament’s victory in the first civil war Poyer should have reaped the reward of his stalwart service. He was, however, outmanoeuvred and betrayed by his former royalist enemies who had come over to the parliamentarian camp when the tides of war turned against them. My book charts their efforts in print and through the organs of local and national politics to orchestrate Poyer’s ruin. Left isolated by their campaigns against him, Poyer rebelled against the New Model Army, initiating the so-called ‘Second Civil War’ of 1648 which engulfed the kingdom in renewed bloodshed and paved the way for the trial and execution of King Charles I. Poyer endured a lengthy a siege in Pembroke Castle led by Oliver Cromwell, but his defeat led to the dramatic scenes at Whitehall and Covent Garden, and two bullets in his uncompromising heart.

My book has examined a multitude of new printed and manuscript sources, and provides many fresh insights into John Poyer’s colourful life and career. It also offers much of interest for our understanding of the nature of provincial politics during the civil war, the dynamics of south Wales during the turbulent 1640s, the influence of the newly expanded world of print and debate upon local politics and much else besides. A concluding chapter explores Poyer’s legacy and treatment in popular culture.

Lloyd Bowen is Reader in Early Modern History at Cardiff University.



Komentari:

  1. Malale

    da...

  2. Kigasar

    Ova poruka, nevjerojatna))), zanimljiva mi je :)

  3. Jehoichin

    Prilično točno! Sviđa mi se ova ideja, potpuno se s vama slažem.

  4. Grosho

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  5. Erchanbold

    Ovo je bila moja krivica.

  6. Dikus

    Priznajete pogrešku. Razmotrit ćemo.

  7. Latimer

    Apsolutno se slažem s tobom. Mislim da je ovo jako dobra ideja. u potpunosti se slažem s tobom.

  8. Calvagh

    the excellent variant



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