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Guillaume Apollinaire uhićen je zbog krađe Mona Lise

Guillaume Apollinaire uhićen je zbog krađe Mona Lise


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Francuski pjesnik Guillaume Apollinaire uhićen je i zatvoren zbog sumnje da je ukrao Leonarda da Vincija Mona Lisa iz pariškog muzeja Louvre.

31-godišnji pjesnik bio je poznat po svojim radikalnim stavovima i podršci ekstremnim avangardnim umjetničkim pokretima, no njegovo je podrijetlo obavijeno velom tajne. Danas se vjeruje da je rođen u Rimu, a odrastao u Italiji. Pojavio se u Parizu s 20 godina i brzo se uklopio u gradski boemski set. Njegov prvi svezak poezije, Truli čarobnjak, pojavio se 1909., a zatim je slijedila zbirka priča 1910. Pristalica kubizma, objavio je knjigu na tu temu, Kubistički slikari, 1913. Iste godine objavio je svoje najcjenjenije djelo, Alkohol, gdje se koristio raznim pjesničkim oblicima i tradicijama kako bi zabilježio svakodnevni ulični govor. Njegova eksperimentalna igra 1917. godine Tiresijeve dojke je proizveden, za koji je skovao izraz "nadrealist".

Apollinaireova tajanstvena pozadina i radikalni stavovi naveli su vlasti da ga smatraju opasnim strancem i glavnim osumnjičenim Mona Lisa pljačke, koja se dogodila 22. kolovoza. Nema dokaza, a Apollinaire je pušten nakon pet dana. Dvije godine kasnije, bivši zaposlenik Louvrea, Vincenzo Peruggia, uhićen je pokušavajući prodati poznatu sliku trgovcu umjetninama.

PROČITAJTE JOŠ: Pljačka koja je Mona Lizu učinila poznatom


Zločini stoljeća

Ona je bila pokretnina francuskih monarha. Francois kupio sam je. Luj XIV postavio ju je u Versailles. Napoleon ju je preselio u svoju spavaću sobu. Bila je Talijanka, koju je Leonardo da Vinci stvorio tijekom četiri godine rada u Firenci, ali Francuska joj je bila dom i tu je ostala četiri stoljeća. Zatim je 20. kolovoza 1911. otkriven goli prostor koji je zauzimala na zidovima Louvrea. Krađa je potresla Francusku: granice zemlje bile su zatvorene, administratori u muzeju smijenjeni, neprijatelji tradicionalne umjetnosti osumnjičeni za zle namjere. (Avangardni pjesnik Guillaume Apollinaire uhićen je zbog sumnje da je umiješao Pabla Picassa. Obojica su na kraju odbačeni kao mogući krivci). Kako su mjeseci prolazili, pojačao se strah da je Mona Lisa uništena. Tada je Louvre dobio poruku iz galerije Uffizi u Firenci. Talijanski dužnosnici rekli su da su uhitili čovjeka po imenu Vincenzo Perugia, koji je Mona Lizu doveo lokalnom trgovcu starinama kako bi je prodao i vratio u Italiju. (Perugia, koji je samostalno ukrao remek-djelo, možda je, a možda i nije, bio dio zavjere za napuhavanje cijene krivotvorene Mona Lisa, izgubio je kontakt sa svojim urotnicima i odlučio je prodati originalnu sliku od drvene ploče. ) Dana 4. siječnja 1914. slika je vraćena u Louvre. Proslavljen kao domoljub u Italiji, Perugia je, iako je proglašen krivim, odslužio samo nekoliko mjeseci zatvora. Domoljublje je utočište i kradljivcima umjetnina.


Mona Lisa je ukradena iz Louvrea

Krađa najpoznatije slike na svijetu 21. kolovoza 1911. stvorila je medijsku senzaciju.

Leonarda da Vincija Mona Lisa, također poznat kao La Gioconda, najpoznatija je slika na svijetu. Količine truda i tinte potrošene su godinama na identifikaciju tko je ona i odlučivanje što njezin zagonetni osmijeh znači, što kaže o ženstvenosti, ako išta i zašto nema obrve. Leonardo je sliku ponio sa sobom kad ga je Franjo I. 1516. pozvao u Francusku. Kralj ju je kupio i nakon Francuske revolucije smjestila se u Louvre. Napoleon ga je odnio da visi u svojoj spavaćoj sobi, ali je nakon toga vraćen u Louvre.

Krađa ovog nevjerojatnog predmeta 1911. godine stvorila je medijsku senzaciju. Policija je bila zbunjena kao i svi ostali. Smatralo se da moraju biti uključeni modernistički neprijatelji tradicionalne umjetnosti, a avangardni pjesnik i dramatičar Guillaume Apollinaire uhićen je u rujnu i ispitivan tjedan dana prije nego što je pušten. Pablo Picasso bio je sljedeći istaknuti osumnjičeni, ali ni protiv njega nije bilo dokaza.

Prošle su dvije godine prije nego što je otkriven pravi krivac, talijanski sitni kriminalac po imenu Vincenzo Perugia, koji se 1908. preselio u Pariz i jedno vrijeme radio u Louvreu. Otišao je u galeriju u bijelom ogrtaču koji su nosili svi tamošnji zaposlenici i sakrio ga dok se nije zatvorio preko noći kad je uklonio Mona Lisa iz svog okvira. Kad se galerija ponovno otvorila, nenametljivo je izašao sa slikom ispod ogrtača, ne privlačeći pozornost, i odnio je u svoj smještaj u Parizu.

Tek u studenom 1913., nazvavši se Leonardo Vincenzo, Perugia je pisala trgovcu umjetninama u Firenci po imenu Alfredo Geri ponudivši sliku da donese u Italiju za nagradu od 500.000 lira. Sljedećeg je mjeseca vlakom otputovao u Firencu, uzevši Mona Lisa u prtljažniku, skrivenom ispod lažnog dna. Nakon što je rezervirao hotel, koji je kasnije lukavo promijenio ime u Hotel La Gioconda, sliku je odnio u Gerijevu galeriju. Geri ga je nagovorila da to ostavi radi vještačenja, a policija je tog dana uhitila Perugiju.

Perugia je očito, potpuno pogrešno, vjerovala da je Mona Lisa bio ukraden iz Firence od strane Napoleona i da je zaslužio nagradu za obavljanje svoje domoljubne dužnosti i vraćanje u njezin pravi dom u Italiji. Tako je barem rekao. Mnogi Talijani dočekali su remek -djelo domaći ljudi koji su se okupili da ga vide neko vrijeme u galeriji Uffizi, neki od njih su plakali od radosti, a Perugia je odslužila samo kratku zatvorsku kaznu. Velika slika je uredno vraćena u Louvre i otada je ondje sigurno i zagonetno visjela.


Pjesnik Guillaume Apollinaire uhićen zbog krađe Mona Lise, s policajcem i lisicama, 1912

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Kad je 1911. ukradena “Mona Lisa ”, policija je uhitila i ispitala Pabla Picassa

Mona Lisa ili La Gioconda, daleko je “najpoznatije, najposjećenije, o kome se najviše piše, o kojem se najviše pjeva, najparodiranije umjetničko djelo na svijetu ”. Razdoblje.

Poludugi portret Lise Gherardini, koji je napravio talijanski renesansni umjetnik Leonardo da Vinci, također ima bogatu povijest žrtava. Najzloglasniji se dogodio 21. kolovoza 1911., kada je slika ukradena.

Francuski slikar Louis Béroud došao je sljedeći dan u Louvre i vidio da slika neobično nedostaje. Kako je trebao skicirati svoje Mona Lisa au Louvre, tražio je od stražara sliku, no pretpostavili su da se fotografira radi reklamiranja muzeja.

Louis se nekoliko sati kasnije vratio u odjel Mona Lise, ali je otkrio da slavni komad još uvijek nedostaje u četiri željezna klina na kojima je trebao stajati. Mona Lisa je doista ukradena. Louvre se zatvorio na čitav tjedan, a istraga je odmah otvorena.

Šalica Vincenza Peruggia.

Policija je prvo pomislila na umjetnika po imenu Géry Piéret koji je krao iz Louvrea. Istražitelji nisu mogli pronaći Piéreta u gradu, pa su otišli do njegovog poslodavca, Guillaumea Apollinairea. Francuski pjesnik i praotac nadrealizma postao je osumnjičen zbog prethodnih uzastopnih javnih izjava da bi Louvre trebao biti spaljen. Uhićen je i zatvoren, a njegov prijatelj Picasso udrugom je postao nesretnom žrtvom krivnje. Španjolski je slikar bio pod sumnjom jer mu je u prošlosti bilo na sreću kupiti neke iberijske kamene glave od Piéreta, potpuno nesvjestan da je Piéret prethodno ukrao predmete iz muzeja. I Picasso i Apollinaire kasnije su bili oslobođeni svih optužbi.

Pravi lopov pronađen je dvije godine kasnije, to je bio Vincenzo Peruggia, koji je radio u Louvreu. Peruggia, rođen u Talijanu, izveo je ono što je opisano kao najveća krađa umjetnosti 20. stoljeća. Bilo je to gotovo poput triler epizode, jer je ukrao remek -djelo Da Vincija tijekom redovnog radnog vremena u muzeju, skrivajući se u ormaru za metlu do poslije radnog vremena, i izlazeći sa skrivenim ispod kaputa. Kao talijanski domoljub, Vincenzo je vjerovao da je sliku trebalo vratiti na prikaz u talijanski muzej. Prema istragama, Peruggia je vjerojatno bila motivirana da ukrade sliku zbog prijatelja koji je posjedovao kopije originala. Navodno bi kopije dramatično podigle cijenu da je slika nestala.

Mona Lisa izložena u galeriji Uffizi u Firenci (Italija). Ravnatelj muzeja Giovanni Poggi (desno) pregledava sliku.

1932. novinska priča objavljena u Saturday Evening Post tvrdio je da je organizator krađe Mona Lise bio Argentinac, Eduardo de Valfierno, koji je navodno platio nekoliko ljudi, uključujući Peruggiju, da ukradu dragocjenu sliku. Prema priči, Valfierno je naručio francuskog restauratora umjetnika i krivotvoritelja Yves Chaudrona da izradi šest kopija Mona Lise, koje su se trebale isporučiti i prodati u Sjedinjenim Državama.

Ipak, originalna Mona Lisa ostala je u Europi, sigurno pohranjena u stanu Peruggia. Uhvaćen je nakon pokušaja prodaje slike direktorima galerije Uffizi u Firenci. Slika je zapravo bila izložena u Talijanskoj galeriji nešto više od dva tjedna, nakon čega je vraćena u Louvre 4. siječnja 1914. godine.

“La Joconde est Retrouvée ” (“Mona Lisa je pronađena ”), Le Petit Parisien, 13. prosinca 1913.

Peruggia je zbog krađe optužen za šest mjeseci zatvora, ali je pozdravljen zbog svog patriotizma u rodnoj zemlji. Zahvaljujući njemu i Mona Lisa postala je doista poznata. Prije toga, renesansno djelo ostalo je malo poznato izvan umjetničkih krugova.

Više skandala dogodilo se oko slike u sljedećim desetljećima. Godine 1956. dio Mona Lise je oštećen nakon što je vandal bacio kiselinu na njega. Zrnce pigmenta u blizini lijevog lakta Mona Lise također je oštećeno 30. prosinca iste godine, nakon što je na njega bačena stijena, ali je oštećenje brzo obnovljeno.

Godine 1974., kada je slika bila izložena na gostujućoj izložbi u Nacionalnom muzeju u Tokiju, žena uznemirena muzejskom politikom za osobe s invaliditetom poprskala ju je crvenom bojom. A 2009. godine, jedna Ruskinja, nezadovoljna što joj nije izdato francusko državljanstvo, bacila je šalicu čaja kupljenu u Louvreu. Srećom, za ova dva posljednja incidenta, poznata je slika ostala neoštećena, zaštićena neprobojnim staklom.


Veliki umjetnički pljačkaši povijesti: čovjek koji je ukrao Mona Lisu

The Mona Lisa je slika kojoj nije potrebno predstavljanje. Ali da Vinci & rsquos kultno renesansno remek-djelo nije & rsquot uvijek bilo svjetski poznata ikona kakva je sada, a veliki dio dame s tajanstvenim osmijehom & rsquosa koji je danas široko rasprostranjen, posljedica je prilično nekonvencionalnog razloga. Ujutro 21. kolovoza 1911. godine Mona Lisa ukraden je iz Louvrea, koji je nazvan jednom od najvećih pljački umjetnosti u povijesti.

20. kolovoza 1911. bila je nedjelja, a navečer je možda bilo mirnije vrijeme za posjet najpoznatijem muzeju Pariz & rsquo. Čovjek niskog rasta i s velikim brkovima ušao je u Louvre i neupadljivo se uputio do Salona Carr & eacute, gdje se Mona Lisa bio smješten. Ovdje se sakrio u ormar za metle & mdash i čekao.

Jutro je stiglo, a prije nego što je muzej otvorio svoja vrata za javnost, muškarac se iskrao s omota ormara za metle, odjeven u bijelu pregaču, koja je bila standardna haljina zaposlenika Louvrea. Kad se uvjerio da je obala čista, nabavio je uljanu sliku iz 16. stoljeća s mjesta na kojoj je visjela na zidu i odnio je do uslužnog stubišta. Ovdje je skinuo sliku sa staklenog okvira i pažljivo je zamotao u bijeli list. Prilikom pokušaja izlaska iz stubišta, lopov je otkrio da su vrata zaključana. Bio je zarobljen. Posjedujući nepokolebljivu smirenost, postavio je Mona Lisa dolje i pokušao rastaviti ometajuću kvaku. Prije nego što je uspio dovršiti zadatak i pobjeći na slobodu, susreo ga je vodoinstalater iz Louvrea koji se također služio stepenicama. U potezu gotovo nevjerojatne sreće, radnik je odvažnog provalnika uzeo za kolegu zaposlenika, brata po oružju kojemu je trebala ruka pomoći. Stoga je ponudio svoju pomoć u otvaranju zaključanih vrata. Varalica se zahvalio zaposleniku i otišao do izlaza, neprocjenjiva slika skrivena ispod nabora pregače.

Louis B & eacuteroud, Mona Lisa au Louvre, 1911, ulje na platnu, Nepoznata zbirka

Iznenađujuće, Mona Lisa nije li taj dan promašen, jer su slike često skidane radi čišćenja ili fotografiranja, pa činjenica da nije & gdje je inače bio, nije nužno bio veliki razlog za uzbunu. Ali dan poslije, kada je francuski slikar Louis B & eacuteroud posjetio muzej kako bi skicirao svoju sliku Mona Lisa au Louvre, pronašao je samo četiri željezna klina gdje je slika trebala visjeti. Zbunjen, potražio je šefa odjeljenja čuvara muzeja, koji mu je rekao da je slika vjerojatno sa fotografima koji su snimljeni radi reklamiranja. No, kad se umjetnik malo kasnije ponovno prijavio s odjelom, potvrđeno je da je Mona Lisa nije bio s fotografima. Tada je osoblje muzeja shvatilo da nešto užasno nije u redu. Obaviještena je policija, a uzalud je provedena tjeskobna pretraga, a jedini trag koji je izašao na vidjelo bilo je otkriće slike i staklenog okvira odbačenog na stubištu. Te je večeri službenik muzeja jezgrovito sažeo krađu u službenom priopćenju: & ldquoMona Lisa je otišla. Do sada nismo imali pojma tko je mogao počiniti ovaj zločin. & Rdquo

Kako bi se istražilo, Louvre je bio zatvoren cijeli tjedan nakon strašnog otkrića. Detektivi su prašeni otiscima i rigorozno ispitivali muzejsko osoblje. Kontrolne točke postavljene su za pretraživanje pješaka i vozila. Čak su htjeli i plakate na kojima nije prikazana šalica kriminalca, već Mona Lisa sebe, bile su u opticaju. Ironično, Mona Lisa stekla je popularnost u široj javnosti, ne svojom prisutnošću, već svojom odsutnošću. Kad se muzej ponovno otvorio tjedan dana kasnije, tisuće ljudi izlilo je kroz njegova vrata kako bi pogledale prazan prostor na kojem je nekad visio.

Prostor u kojem se nalazi Mona Lisa jednom obješen tijekom razdoblja svog nestanka. Autor nepoznat. Časopis Century, Veljače 1914

Istraga je otkrila jednog osumnjičenika visokog profila. Policija je uhitila Guillaumea Apollinairea u rujnu nakon što je francuskog pjesnika dovela u vezu s ranijom krađom dva kipića, koje je dao ukrasti svom tajniku iz Louvrea. Tijekom ispitivanja, Apollinaire je sa slučajem povezao još jednog osumnjičenika visokog profila: Pabla Picassa, koji je ukradene kipove kupio kako bi ih koristio kao uzor za svoje djelo. Policija je ispitala oboje u vezi s krađom Mona Lisa, ali njihova su imena razjašnjena zbog nedostatka dokaza. Istraga je došla u slijepu ulicu.

Dvije godine kasnije Alfredo Geri, firentinski trgovac umjetninama, primio je pismo poštom. Bio je poštanskim žigom iz Pariza, a njegov pošiljatelj bio je tajanstveni čovjek koji se odjavio od poruke jednostavno kao & lsquoLeonard & rsquo. Pisac je tvrdio da je odgovoran za krađu Mona Lisa, te da želi vidjeti remek -djelo vraćeno na talijansko tlo. Geri je kontaktirala Giovannija Poggija, ravnatelja galerije Uffizi. Par je sumnjao u istinitost pisma i rsquosa, ali su zaključili da će nastaviti s ponudom predstavljenom u pismu. Geri je pozvala čovjeka u Firencu, a nekoliko dana kasnije njih troje se srelo u hotelskoj sobi pisca pisama & rsquos. Proizveden je predmet umotan u crvenu svilu koji je s pijetetom stavljen na posteljinu. Kad je veo odbačen, Florentinci su bili u nevjerici: Mona Lisa ležao ondje i zavodnički im se smiješio. Slika je odmah dogovorena za odvoz u Uffizi, a dogovoreno je da čovjek traži cijenu od 500.000 lira. Međutim, par nikada nije namjeravao zapravo platiti otkupninu za zagonetnu dame & mdash da Vinci & rsquos, dok je u galeriji slika ovjerena, a vlasti su naknadno kontaktirale.

Policijski snimak Vincenza Peruggie snimljen dvije godine prije krađe 1909. godine

Dana 11. prosinca 1913. čovjek poznat kao & lsquoLeonard & rsquo uhićen je u svojoj firentinskoj hotelskoj sobi. Nije iznenađujuće da je ime s kojim je pismo potpisano bilo pseudonim. Pravi identitet čovjeka bio je Vincenzo Peruggia, bivši zaposlenik Louvrea, koji je zapravo pomogao u izgradnji staklene vitrine koja je držala Mona Lisa. Peruggia bi bio iznimno upoznat s rutinama i protokolima muzeja, što ga je učinilo savršenim kandidatom za umjetničku pljačku koja se tamo provodi. Policija ga je čak dva puta dovodila na ispitivanje u vezi s krađom. Talijanski imigrant zadržao je Mona Lisa zatvorenik u svom stanu na periferiji Pariza, skriven na sigurnom mjestu ispod lažnog dna drvenog prtljažnika. Peruggia je kasnije razmišljao o tome da je čuvar Mona Lise & rsquos: & ldquoPadoh joj žrtva njezina osmijeha i svake večeri mi se nagledah blaga. Zaljubio sam se u nju. & Rdquo

Peruggia je osuđen na godinu i petnaest dana zatvora, iako je odslužio samo sedam mjeseci. Iako njegovi napori nisu bili potpuno uzaludni. The Mona Lisa bio je izložen u galeriji Uffizi više od dva tjedna prije nego što je vraćen u Louvre, a talijanski je narod Peruggiju proglasio nacionalnim herojem. U prva dva dana nakon povratka, oko 120.000 ljudi posjetilo je muzej kako bi pogledali vraćeno remek -djelo, a osjećaj izazvan njezinom krađom značajno je pomogao da se slika izbaci u središte javnosti i učvrsti njeno mjesto u kolektivu svijest ljubitelja umjetnosti i filistera. Čini se da se ponekad, barem u ovom slučaju, zločin doista isplati.

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Na 21. kolovoza 1911, najpoznatija slika na svijetu, Mona Lisa, ukradena je iz Louvrea. Nedostatak slike prvi je primijetio slikar Louis Beroud, koji se ujutro 22. kolovoza uputio u salon Carré gdje je Mona Lisa bila izložena pet godina. Međutim, umjesto slike uglađenog nasmiješenog La Gioconde, našao je prazan zid. O događaju je obavijestio jednog od čuvara koji je pretpostavio da je slika uzeta za fotografiranje u marketinške svrhe. Međutim, u roku od nekoliko sati postalo je jasno da je umjetničko djelo nestalo iz Louvrea!

Novinarska pratnja koja je uslijedila bila je ogromna, što je čudno doprinijelo još većoj popularnosti slike. „Pariške novine oplakivale su gubitak nacionalnog blaga i nekoliko tjedana punile su svoje stranice svakom anegdotom i pričom o slici. The Pétit Parisien, najprodavaniji dnevni list francuske prijestolnice, s naslovnicama ilustriranog časopisa, Ilustracija, imao je reprodukciju Mona Lise u boji na cijeloj stranici, kao i sliku praznog zida na kojem je nekad visjela. The London Illustrated News također je objavio dvostruko rasprostranjenu verziju slike u boji. Krađa je bila vijest na naslovnoj stranici New York Times i drugi američki listovi. Ubrzo je pljačka bila predmet pjesama, kabarea, pa čak i filma. …Međunarodni tisak koji je izvještavao o krađi … značio je da su mnogi koji nikada nisu stvarno studirali umjetnost ili posjetili Louvre upoznali sliku i njenog tvorca. Priča je potaknula javnost da misli o Leonardovoj slici kao o osobi. Francuski tisak - iako se to odražavalo drugdje - sliku je gotovo uvijek nazivao "ona". Mona Lisa nije toliko ukradena koliko oteta. ” (John Brewer, Američki Leonardo: Priča o opsesiji, umjetnosti i novcu). U suvremenoj terminologiji, Mona Lisa je jednostavno postigla status 'slavne osobe'.

Pitanje je bilo: tko je to učinio? Tko se usudio ukrasti Leonardovo neprocjenjivo remek -djelo? Prvi osumnjičeni koji je uhićen bio je francuski pjesnik poljskog podrijetla Guillaume Apollinaire. Iako su ga tračevi i niz tragova povezivali s krađom, Apollinaire je doista uhićen zbog svoje umiješanosti u prethodnu pljačku feničanskih kipića u Louvru. Pjesnik je bio podvrgnut dugom danu ispitivanja prije nego što je priznao da zna nešto o kipićima i lopovu, ali je porekao bilo kakvo sudjelovanje u krađi Mona Lise. Očajnički želeći očistiti svoje ime, Apollinaire je čak umiješao svog prijatelja Pabla Picassa, koji je također doveden na ispitivanje. No Picasso je poricao da je uopće poznavao Apollinairea. Na kraju, zbog nedostatka dokaza, Apollinaire je pušten nakon tjedan dana provedenih u zatvoru La Santé. Iskustvo ovog zatočeništva duboko ga je uznemirilo, ali, navodno, jako nadahnulo. Prema jednom od Apollinaireovih bliskih prijatelja, skladatelju Albertu Saviniou, pjesniku “Proveo deset dana u zatvoru, pio enu de nénuphar koju su stražari prošli pored njega kako bi prigušili vatru osjetila i u ćeliji napisali jednu od svojih najdirljivijih pjesama: À la zatvor de la Santé. " (Alberto Savino i Richard Pever, Apollinaire: Iz nove enciklopedije, The American Poetry Review, vol. 10, br. 3, svibanj/lipanj 1981.).

Koliko god bio nesretan cijeli slučaj Apollinaire, golema javnost koja je uslijedila uvelike je utjecala na njegov međunarodni ugled. “Prije ove bizarne epizode relativno je malo ljudi čulo za pjesnika izvan Francuske. Odjednom je, zahvaljujući neopravdanom incidentu, stekao trenutno svjetsko priznanje. Njegova karijera bila je podvrgnuta javnom nadzoru ne samo francuskih vlasti, već i međunarodnog tiska. …Tako je prvo spominjanje Apollinairea u Sjedinjenim Državama, kao i u većini drugih zemalja, nastalo krađom Mona Lise. ” (Wilard Bohn, Apollinaire and the International Avangarda). Upitno je je li ovakva slava pomogla Apollinairu u njegovoj karijeri, činjenica je da je, slučajno, razdoblje između 1910. i 1920. bilo izuzetno plodno vrijeme za pjesnika. “Tijekom ovih godina objavio je dvije velike zbirke poezije, knjigu kratkih priča, revolucionarnu studiju kubističkog slikarstva, avangardni roman, dva utjecajna manifesta i revolucionarnu predstavu uz mnoštvo drugih djela. ” (Bohn)


Guillaume Apollinaire uhićen je zbog krađe Mona Lise - POVIJEST

Leonardo da Vinci započeo je rad na Mona Lisa oko 1503., za koju se mislilo da je naručena slika Lise Gherardini, treće žene trgovca svilom Freancesca del Gioconda. Što se tiče zašto ga da Vinci nikada nije isporučio, nagađalo se da je nedugo nakon toga primio mnogo unosniju proviziju i tako napustio tadašnju sliku. Druga je hipoteza da je možda napravio dvije verzije slike, zadržavajući jednu, a isporučujući drugu. Bez obzira na to, da Vinci je nastavio raditi na Mona Lisi (“Mona ” manje -više značeći “Madam ”) do oko 1517. Iako se danas općenito smatra najpoznatijom slikom na svijetu, nije 8217t sve dok ga francuski likovni kritičari nisu počeli smatrati modelom renesansne slikarske tehnike sredinom 19. stoljeća, da je počeo dobivati ​​na snazi ​​kao sve osim jednog od mnogih velikih Da Vincijevih djela. Zapravo, u 18. stoljeću kralj Louis XV je zapravo besceremonski uklonio sliku sa svog istaknutog mjesta u Versaillesu i stavio je s puta u čuvara kraljevskih zgrada i ureda#8217.

Do kraja 19. stoljeća, međutim, Mona Lisa je postigla razinu značajne slave među svjetskim entuzijastima, ali široj javnosti još uvijek je bila malo poznata. Sve se to promijenilo, međutim, kada je slika ukradena 1911. Ubrzo nakon toga, umjetnik Pablo Picasso uhićen je zbog krađe.

Je li Picasso zapravo bio umiješan i kako je ova krađa rezultirala time da je Mona Lisa postala najpoznatija slika na svijetu?

Priča danas počinje u utorak, 22. kolovoza 1911. Tog je jutra francuski umjetnik Louis Béroud stigao u Louvre s namjerom da naslika kopiju Mona Lise. Louvre je na ovaj način rado zabavljao umjetnike, sve dok kopije bilo kojeg djela ne budu iste veličine kao izvornik.

Na nesreću Bérouda, kad je ušao u Salon Carré, postojao je prazan prostor na kojem je Mona Lisa trebala visjeti. Béroud je upitao obližnjeg zaštitara tražeći da zna gdje je slika. Čuvar je pretpostavljao da ga je odjel za fotografije morao ukloniti jer su to često činili, a da nikome nisu rekli.

Nezadovoljan tim objašnjenjem, Béroud je zatražio od stražara da sazna gdje se slika nalazi i kada će je vratiti. Međutim, nakon opsežne potrage, stražar nije uspio locirati nikoga tko je znao što se dogodilo sa slikom. Ubrzo nakon toga Louvre je zatvoren, dok su osoblje i francuska policija pročešljali više od 1.000 soba u velikom muzeju. No bez uspjeha- Mona Lisa je nestala.

Nakon toga, policijski organi diljem Francuske pokušali su osigurati granice u slučaju da je lopov pokušao napustiti državu sa slikom, pretražujući svaki komad prtljage koji izlazi iz zemlje. Brodovi koji su plovili nakon krađe, ali prije početka potrage, naknadno su pretraženi kad su stigli na odredište.

Vlasti su također intervjuirale i istražile svakog zaposlenika u Louvreu. Uostalom, slika je bila tamo u nedjelju, ali nije bila u utorak. Jedini ljudi koji su trebali imati pristup zgradi u ponedjeljak bili su zaposlenici koji su radili taj dan. Pa čak i da nije bio zaposlenik, zasigurno s toliko ljudi u zgradi, netko je morao vidjeti nešto. Ali ovaj put istrage također nije otišao nikamo.

Novinari su imali dan na terenu. Francuske novine započele su rat s namjerom da vide tko bi mogao ponuditi najveću nagradu za informacije koje vode do sigurnog povratka slike, poput Paris-Journal koja je nudila 50.000 franaka (oko 198.000 eura ili 220.000 dolara danas).

Kad se početkom rujna muzej napokon ponovno otvorio, posjetitelji su priskočili samo kako bi vidjeli mjesto gdje se nalazi Mona Lisa bio obješen. Mladi autor Franz Kafka išao bi posjetiti Louvre da pogleda prazan dio zida, bilježeći u svom dnevniku “ uzbuđenje i čvorove ljudi, kao da je Mona Lisa upravo ukradena. ”

Ipak, unatoč svemu, nije bilo čvrstih tragova i staza je bila potpuno hladna.

Odnosno, sve dok policija nije doznala gdje se nalaze još neki predmeti ukradeni iz Louvrea.

Ovo nas dovodi do Pabla Picassa.

Kad je Picasso 1900. godine stigao u Pariz, među mnogim drugim umjetnički nastrojenim prijateljima stekao je i pjesnika Guillaumea Apollinairea. Apollinaire je pak imao tajnika po imenu Géry Pieret. Poznavajući Picassovu ljubav prema iberijskim skulpturama iz 3. i 4. stoljeća koje su tada bile izložene u Louvreu, Pieret je odlučio jednostavno otići u Louvre i uzeti ih par. Kako se ispostavilo, s obzirom na nisku gustoću zaštitara u objektu u odnosu na njegovu ogromnu veličinu, krađa očito nije bila teška.

Kad je Pieret poklonio kipove Picassu, volio ih je, a Apollinaire i Picasso na kraju su Pieretu platili 100 franaka (danas oko 440 dolara) za ukradene predmete. Picasso bi zapravo nastavio koristiti lice jednog od kipova u svom čuvenom remek -djelu iz 1907. Les Demoiselles d’Avignon.

Prešavši na 1911., Pieret se našao slomljenim i odlučio je ukrasti još stvari iz Louvrea kako bi ih pak prodao. Kad je Apollinaire to saznao, izbacio ga je iz svog stana, što je bilo smiješno, na dan kada je ukradena Mona Lisa.

Budući da su predmeti ukradeni iz Louvrea sada vijest na naslovnoj strani, Apollinaire i Picasso imali su problem s tim što nisu točno držali u tajnosti posjedovanje ukradenih kipova, dok je Apollinaire neko vrijeme zapravo prikazivao jedan na svom kaminu bezbroj gostiju, uključujući i neke novinare. Bilo je samo pitanje vremena kada će se javiti vlasti.

Stvari su se pogoršale kada je, možda samo radi osvete ili zarade na novinama ako otkrije informacije, Pieret izvijestio Paris-Journal da je znao gdje se nalazi još par ukradenih predmeta iz Louvrea.

Nepotrebno je reći da su u ovom trenutku Apollinaire i Picasso bili u maloj panici. Kako primjećuje Picassova dugogodišnja ljubavnica Fernande Olivier,

Vidim ih oboje: skrušena djeca, omamljena strahom i smišljajući planove za bijeg iz zemlje. Odlučili su se odmah riješiti kompromitirajućih objekata. Konačno, odlučili su se izaći te noći i baciti kofer sa skulpturama u Seinu - krenuli su pješice oko ponoći noseći kofere. Vratili su se u dva ujutro, apsolutno umorni od psa. Još su imali kovčege i njihov sadržaj. Lutali su gore -dolje, nesposobni predati svoj paket. Mislili su da ih slijede. Njihova je mašta sanjala tisuću mogućih pojava, svaka fantastičnija od prethodne.

Kako se nisu mogli natjerati da riješe ove dijelove povijesti, Apollinaire ih je odlučio dati uredniku časopisa Paris-Journal, Andre Salmon. Unatoč uvjetu da im se vrati, budući da je urednik tajio svoje znanje o tome tko ih je posjedovao, kad je policija lososa ispekla na žaru, prosuo je grah.

Apollinaire je odmah uhićen i postao glavni osumnjičeni broj 1 za krađu Mona Lise. Nedugo nakon toga, Picassa je umiješao Apollinaire, a zatim ga je dovela policija, a njegov stan temeljito je tražio nestalu sliku. Dok su se njih dvojica držala, novine su imale dan na terenu o navodnoj skupini radikalnih umjetnika predvođenih Picassom i Apollinairom koji su sa strane vodili međunarodnu skupinu lopova umjetnina.

Dana 8. rujna dvojica su se muškaraca pojavila pred sucem Henrijem Driouxom. Oboje bi se pretvorilo u histeriku, pričajući sucu priče koje su u sukobu sa stvarima koje su rekli čak i nekoliko trenutaka prije. U jednom trenutku Picasso je postao toliko očajan da je povukao Petra, nasumce izjavljujući sucu da nije ni poznavao Apollinairea, unatoč tome što je bilo dobro poznato da su im bliski prijatelji.

Of this statement, decades later Picasso would state in an interview, “When the judge asked me: ‘Do you know this gentleman?’…I answered: ‘I have never seen this man.’…I saw Guillaume’s expression change. The blood ebbed from his face. I am still ashamed.”

Both men at various points broke down and wept, begging the court’s forgiveness. Ultimately the judge had seen enough, and correctly surmised that the pair had had nothing to do with the theft of the Mona Lisa and knew nothing about who had stolen it. While they had technically knowingly purchased and kept stolen goods, he let them off and they were released 4 days later, on September 12th.

Over the following two years, Louvre officials gave up hope of the Mona Lisa’s return and after briefly hanging a replica of the painting, replaced it with Baldassare Castiglione by Raphael.

During this span, reports still occasionally filtered in that the painting had been sighted or was being offered for sale, but none of them panned out. It wasn’t until November of 1913 that the story picks up. It was then that art dealer Alfredo Geri of Florence, Italy received a letter from a man identifying himself as “Leonard”.

Leonard claimed to have the Mona Lisa in his possession and wanted to meet to hand it over. After an exchange of letters, Geri involved Giovanni Poggi of the Uffizi Gallery in Florence. As to why, Poggi had detailed photographs of the real Mona Lisa which, most importantly, showed the crack lines from the paint drying over the centuries, as well as markings on the back that few knew about. With these photographs, they’d be able to easily tell if the painting Leonard had was the real thing, or simply yet another forgery among many that had popped up since the painting was stolen.

After a series of delays, Leonard agreed to meet the two men. However, before the scheduled meeting, he showed up at Geri’s gallery unexpectedly. While there, he reaffirmed he had the Mona Lisa and that he knew for a fact it was the real one. When asked how he could be so sure, he brashly revealed he’d taken it from the Louvre himself. When Geri then asked him if he’d done it alone, he states Leonard, to quote, “was not too clear on that point. He seemed to say yes, but didn’t quite do so,” and that his answer was “more ‘yes’ than ‘no.’”

They then negotiated a fee for Leonard to sell the painting for 500,000 lire (about €1.8 million or $2 million) to the Italian government- a bargain given newspapers at the time estimated the Mona Lisa to be worth approximately ten times that amount.

Later, Geri and Poggi met Leonard at his hotel where he pulled out a white trunk. When he opened it, no Mona Lisa could be seen, which confirmed Geri’s suspicions that the whole thing was a hoax, as all the trunk appeared to contain was “wretched objects: broken shoes, a mangled hat, a pair of pliers, plastering tools, a smock, some paint brushes, and even a mandolin.”

But under a false bottom to the trunk, Leonard removed an object wrapped in red silk. Said Geri, “To our astonished eyes, the divine Mona Lisa appeared, intact and marvelously preserved.”

The men then convinced Leonard to come with them to the Uffizi Gallery so they could compare the painting to the photographs to confirm that it indeed was the missing masterpiece. When they did so, they found everything matched perfectly. They had the Mona Lisa.

The two experts then requested Leonard leave the painting at the gallery and return to his hotel while they worked on collecting his payment. Naturally, they instead notified the police, who arrested Leonard at his hotel almost immediately after he arrived back at his room. As for Geri, he received a tidy sum of 25,000 francs (about $110,000 today) as a reward from the Les Amis du Louvre and was given the Legion of Honor from the French government… Of course, he followed this up by suing the French government for 10% of the value of the painting, but the French courts ruled against him on that one.

So who was Leonard really and how did he manage to get a hold of the Mona Lisa?

Leonard turned out to be one Vincenzo Perugia. Italian by birth, in his 20s he decided to move to Paris with his brothers. When he wasn’t occasionally getting in trouble with the law, including at one point attempting to rob a prostitute which landed him in the slammer, he took odd jobs, including working construction.

He supposedly even helped construct the protective case around the Mona Lisa. This was done in 1910 after museum officials received a letter threatening the safety of the Mona Lisa. They then contracted with a firm called Cobier to come construct glass faced protective cases for certain of the more valuable paintings. Perugia, at the time, just so happened to work for Cobier, and as a result ended up working at the Louvre from October of 1910 to January of 1911, helping him become extremely familiar with its layout.

As for how he stole the painting, many of the details are still up in the air as Perugia’s account varied considerably on several points throughout the interrogation process and trial, and some parts of his story don’t make any sense at all. This was all considered curious because he’d already confessed to the crime both to Geri and the authorities after, so there was little point in lying about how he did it, unless he was perhaps protecting others who may have been involved.

Whatever the case, the generally accepted story is that Perugia slipped into a nearby storage closet on Sunday and spent the night there. After emerging from the closet on Monday dressed in a white smock to blend in with other workers, Perugia states he targeted the Mona Lisa because it “was the smallest painting and the easiest to transport.”

The 5 ft 3 inch (1.6 meter) Perugia then supposedly managed to lift the nearly 200 pound (91 kg) frame and painting off the wall, despite that it weighed significantly more than he did- one of many factors that have led some to speculate that he probably wasn’t actually working alone.

And if you’re now wondering why the painting wasn’t secured to the wall in any way, ease of removal was considered a good thing by museum officials in case of a fire.

In any event, once out in a nearby stairwell, Perugia claims he removed the painting from its casing, wrapped a white cloth around it and supposedly somehow slipped the 21吚 inch (53呈 cm) painting under his smock despite that this is about half his height and significantly wider than the man himself… Color us skeptical on that one.

If you’re wondering why he didn’t try rolling it up, this wasn’t possible as the Mona Lisa is not painted on a canvas, but on slabs of wood.

Walking down the stairs to the first floor, Perugia ran into a big problem- the door at the bottom was locked and the key he had somehow acquired for it didn’t work. Using the screwdriver he had on hand, he managed to get the door knob off, at which point he was discovered by a plumber by the name of Sauvet. Apparently not seeing anything suspicious about a missing door knob, nor the giant square bulge that was supposedly under Perugia’s smock at the time, if Perugia is to be believed, helpfully, Sauvet had some pliers on him that made the task of finishing the job of opening the door easier.

Perugia was then able to leave the museum altogether when the guard at the main entrance briefly left his post to get a bucket of water to use to clean the lobby. Once outside, Perugia tossed aside the doorknob, which was later found by police, and went home.

Smart enough not to leave Paris with the painting while the heat was on, Perugia waited 28 months to bring it back to Italy, ultimately making that trip with the painting stored in the hidden compartment in his trunk.

Despite strong suspicions that he must have had help, Perugia maintained that he worked alone and only wanted to return the Mona Lisa to her rightful home in Italy.

He seemed to be under the mistaken impression that the painting had been stolen and taken to France by Napoleon. In fact, da Vinci himself brought it with him to the French court a couple hundred years before Napoleon, with his assistant eventually selling it to King Francis I. After the revolution, the painting became the property of the new government.

While the general public in Italy seemed to eat up the patriotic angle to the story, with some proclaiming Perugia a hero, the presiding judge wasn’t buying it. For example, consider this exchange:

Judge: Is it true. that you tried to sell the Mona Lisa in England?

Perugia: Me? I offered to sell the Mona Lisa to the English? Who says so? It’s false!

Judge: it is you yourself who said so, during one of your examinations which I have right here in front of me.

Perugia: Duveen didn’t take me seriously. I protest against this lie that I would have wanted to sell the painting to London. I wanted to take it back to Italy, and to return it to Italy, and that is what I did.

Judge: Nevertheless, your unselfishness wasn’t total—you did expect some benefit from restoration.

Perugia: Ah benefit, benefit, certainly something better than what happened to me here…

In the end, Perugia was convicted, but given a relatively light sentence of just a year and fifteen days in prison. Upon appeal, his lawyers managed to get the sentence reduced to seven months.

Because he had already served more than that time since being arrested, he was immediately released and eventually returned to France where he would live out the rest of his life working, among other things, as a house painter until his death in 1925 at the age of 44.

Što se tiče Mona Lisa, initially there was some debate among members of the Italian government as to whether they should return the painting to France or keep it, but they ultimately decided, to quote a statement issued:

The Mona Lisa will be delivered to the French Ambassador with a solemnity worthy of Leonardo da Vinci and a spirit of happiness worthy of Mona Lisa’s smile. Although the masterpiece is dear to all Italians as one of the best productions of the genius of their race, we will willingly return it to its foster country … as a pledge of friendship and brotherhood between the two great Latin nations.

In thanks, the French government allowed the Mona Lisa to be displayed at certain museums in Italy before taking it back.

In the aftermath, with the painting gracing the front pages of newspapers the world over in the hoopla after the initial theft, and then again when it was found, and yet again during the well publicized return to France, it had now come to be considered the world’s best known, and most valuable painting. The Louvre saw a reported 100,000 people come view the painting in the first two days after its return alone, and it’s been one of the biggest draws at the massive facility ever since. As art critic Robert Hughes would lament, “People came not to look at the painting, but to say they that they’d seen it… The painting made the leap from artwork to icon of mass consumption.”

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Apollinaire, the Immigrant Poet Who Shaped the Parisian Avant-Garde

Marie Laurencin, “Apollinaire et ses amis” or “Une réunion à la campagne” (1909), oil on canvas, Paris, Centre Georges Pompidou, Musée national d’art moderne (© Centre Pompidou, MNAM-CCI, Dist. RMN-Grand Palais / Jean-Claude Planchet © Fondation Foujita / ADAGP, Paris 2016) (click to enlarge)

PARIS — On September 7, 1911, French police arrested poet Guillame Apollinaire for stealing the Mona Lisa. Apollinaire hadn’t actually taken the iconic treasure however, a few days prior to his arrest, he had attempted to anonymously return a pair of ancient Iberian busts stolen for him and Pablo Picasso by their associate, Géry Piéret. Picasso, who modeled the central figures of “Les Demoiselles d’Avignon” on the bust Piéret procured for him, was also brought in for questioning. Miraculously, neither the painter nor the poet was charged with receiving stolen goods. If they had been, their status as foreigners in the French Republic would most certainly have resulted in their deportation. Luckily, lack of evidence and pressure from the Parisian art and literary establishments forced the police to release Apollinaire six days later — thereby consigning the episode to one of the wilder footnotes of art history rather than to one of its major chapters.

These infamous busts are among the more than 305 paintings, sculptures, and artifacts from Apollinaire’s personal and professional life that are on display in Apollinaire, le regard du poète (or “Apollinaire, the Vision of the Poet”) at the Musée de l’Orangerie.

Giorgio de Chirico, “Portrait (prémonitoire) de Guillaume Apollinaire” (1914), oil on canvas, Paris, Musée National d’Art Moderne — Centre Georges Pompidou (© Centre Pompidou, MNAM-CCI, Dist. RMN-Grand Palais / Adam Rzepka © ADAGP, Paris 2016) (click to enlarge)

Born Wilhelm Apollinairs de Kostrowitzky in Rome in 1880, Apollinaire was the illegitimate grandson of a Polish nobleman in the service of the Pope. In France he came into writing, first in the south, where he spent his adolescence, and then in Paris, where the young poet spent the first decade of the 20th century struggling to support himself with a series of odd jobs, including as a bank teller, tabloid journalist, and editor of a volume of “erotica” (read: pornographer).

An early champion of extra-European and Post-Impressionist visual art, Apollinaire published the first-ever body of critical writing about Cubism, Méditations esthétiques, les Peintres cubistes, in 1913. Work by artists that Apollinaire talks about in this seminal text make up the nucleus of the show, which explores the poet’s relationship to the Parisian avant-garde, from his first texts in 1902 to his untimely death from Spanish flu in 1918.

A room modeled on the interior of his apartment on Boulevard Saint-Germain reveals an eclectic mix of military memorabilia, African figurines, theater posters, and circus puppets. The items expose bits of both Apollinaire’s personal history and taste for aesthetic alterity. The circus paraphernalia in particular points to the poet’s friendship with the playwright and provocateur Alfred Jarry, whom he met in 1903 and who was responsible for bringing the young poet into the bohemian milieu of the circus and vanguard theater.

Installation view of ‘Apollinaire, le regard du poète’ at the Musée de l’Orangerie (© Musée de l’Orangerie, photo by Sophie Boegly) (click to enlarge)

Another room, titled after “Méditations esthétiques,” presents the work of the artists Apollinaire discusses in the text: Picasso, Georges Braque, Jean Metzinger, Albert Gleizes, Juan Gris, Fernand Léger, Francis Picabia, Robert Delany, and Marcel Duchamp. Together, this impressive group makes for a stunning installation, however Apollinaire’s art writing itself leaves much to be desired. For instance, a review in which Apollinaire compares the performance of le Coq d’or by the Ballet Russes to Italian Futurism is perplexing, especially after examining Natalia Goncharova’s costume designs (there are eight on view in the exhibition’s second room), which evoke more the bright colors and patterns of Matisse the figures invented to fill them suggest more the disproportioned bodies of Rousseau’s figures than the sweeping geometries of Gino Severini or Boccioni.

Similarly, in the chapter of Médiations devoted to Marie Laurencin — an artist with whom Apollinaire had a turbulent five-year affair — the poet is unable to comment insightfully beyond the occasional mention of the “grace and charm” of her “feminine arabesques.” The writing is awkward, especially in the middle of the chapter, where Apollinaire inexplicably interrupts his own analysis to devote the next several pages to a description of Rousseau’s work. Add in the fact that Laurencin’s slender, reduced forms, while indeed enchanting, constitute a style that is anything but Cubist, and we are left with a graphic affirmation of the cliché that love is blind.

Installation view of ‘Apollinaire, le regard du poète’ at the Musée de l’Orangerie (© Musée de l’Orangerie, photo by Sophie Boegly) (click to enlarge)

On the other hand, these gaffes and incongruities can feel like real missed opportunities, especially when one considers that Goncharova and Laurencin are among the few women to be found anywhere in the Apollinaire narrative. The curators revealingly excluded Laurencin from the room dedicated to Médiations, but otherwise play down the limits of Apollinaire’s art writing, preferring to focus on his role as a loyal friend and impresario for the many artists in his entourage.

Robert Delaunay, “Portrait de Guillaume Apollinaire” (ca 1911–12), gouache and paint on canvas, Paris, Musée National d’Art Moderne—Centre Georges Pompidou (© Centre Pompidou, MNAM-CCI, Dist. RMN-Grand Palais / Georges Meguerditchian) (click to enlarge)

Portraits of Apollinaire are the most present index of friendship, with at least one in each of the show’s seven galleries. The portraits capture the poet in a variety of states. An etching by Louis Marcoussis shows him behind bars after his arrest. Metzinger’s “Study for the Portrait of Guillaume Apollinaire” portrays him seated at a café with a pipe in his mouth. Two group portraits by Laurencin place Apollinaire at the center of his cortège, Picasso (with whom Apollinaire enjoyed a particularly intense fellowship) at his side. A small drawing by Picasso depicts the poet in profile, his head wrapped in a bandage. The latter image is echoed by several anonymous photographs that show Apollinaire in his military fatigues, his head encased in gauze after a piece of shrapnel pierced his helmet on the front lines of the First World War.

Within a year of his head injury, Apollinaire joined the staff of a number of vanguard literary journals, wrote and produced the play Les Mamelles de Tirésias, and coined the term “sur-realist.” Apollinaire it seemed had entered into a soothsaying phase. In November 1917, he gave a lecture on “L’Esprit nouveau et les poètes” (“The new spirit and poets”) in which he predicted the importance of new technology, particularly “cinema and phonography,” in the future of the arts.

Guillaume Apollinaire, “La Mandoline, l’Œillet et le Bambou,” calligram from the series ‘Étendards’ (1914–15), ink on threee pieces of paper including one with a headline from the newspaper ‘Le Sciècle’ on the verso, Paris, Musée National d’Art Moderne—Centre Georges Pompidou (© Centre Pompidou, MNAM-CCI, Dist. RMN-Grand Palais / Adam Rzepka) (click to enlarge)

In the final year of his life, Apollinaire married Jacqueline Kolb and inaugurated an innovative genre of poetry that blended visual and textual elements in his collection Calligrammes — two of which, “Il pleut” and “La colombe poignardée et le jet d’eau,” are displayed in the first room of the exhibition. Affixed to the wall with vinyl lettering, these poems rub shoulders with Gris’s “Man in a Café,” a Yourbi fetish statue, and a “Harlequin” bust by Picasso — much in the same way that their author might have installed them.

The final section of the exhibition explores Apollinaire’s relationship to Parisian gallerist Paul Guillaume. Their correspondence, published for the first time on the occasion of the exhibition, reveals that Apollinaire was instrumental in guiding young Guillaume’s vision and developing his taste. In the 1950s, Guillaume’s widow bequeathed her late husband’s collection to the Orangerie, where it now constitutes a major part of the permanent collection. In that sense, Apollinaire also deserves credit for determining the character of the museum that now hosts his retrospective.

Collector, critic, friend, soothsayer, and founding father, Apollinaire was also, as the episode of his arrest reminds us, an immigrant whose status was at one point as precarious as that of many living in France today. At a time when foreigners in Europe and other parts of the world face ever-increasing scrutiny and resentment, the wealth of Apollinaire’s contribution to French literature and art history is particularly worth remembering. Luckily, Apollinaire, le regard du poète is just the reminder that was needed.

Installation view of ‘Apollinaire, le regard du poète’ at the Musée de l’Orangerie (© Musée de l’Orangerie, photo by Sophie Boegly) (click to enlarge)

Installation view of ‘Apollinaire, le regard du poète’ at the Musée de l’Orangerie (© Musée de l’Orangerie, photo by Sophie Boegly) (click to enlarge)

Apollinaire, le regard du poète continues at the Musée de l’Orangerie (Jardin des Tuileries, 1st arrondissement, Paris) through July 18.


Mona Lisa was stolen in 1911 police arrested and questioned Picasso

The painting’s fame was emphasized when it was stolen on 21 August 1911. The next day, Louis Béroud, a painter, walked into the Louvre and went to the Salon Carré where the Mona Lisa had been on display for five years. However, where the Mona Lisa should have stood, he found four iron pegs. Béroud contacted the section head of the guards, who thought the painting was being photographed for marketing purposes. A few hours later, Béroud checked back with the section head of the museum, and it was confirmed that the Mona Lisa was not with the photographers. The Louvre was closed for an entire week to aid in investigation of the theft.

French poet Guillaume Apollinaire, who had once called for the Louvre to be “burnt down”, came under suspicion he was arrested and put in jail. Apollinaire tried to implicate his friend Pablo Picasso, who was also brought in for questioning, but both were later exonerated.

At the time, the painting was believed to be lost forever, and it was two years before the real thief was discovered. Louvre employee Vincenzo Peruggia had stolen it by entering the building during regular hours, hiding in a broom closet and walking out with it hidden under his coat after the museum had closed. Peruggia was an Italian patriot who believed Leonardo’s painting should be returned to Italy for display in an Italian museum. Peruggia may have also been motivated by a friend whose copies of the original would significantly rise in value after the painting’s theft. A later account suggested Eduardo de Valfierno had been the mastermind of the theft and had commissioned forger Yves Chaudron to create 6 copies of the painting to be sold in the United States while the location of the original was unclear. But the original remained in Europe and after having kept the Mona Lisa in his apartment for two years, Peruggia grew impatient and was finally caught when he attempted to sell it to the directors of the Uffizi Gallery in Florence it was exhibited all over Italy and returned to the Louvre in 1913. Peruggia was hailed for his patriotism in Italy and served six months in jail for the crime.

In 1956, the lower part of the painting was severely damaged when a vandal threw acid at the painting. On 30 December of that same year, a young Bolivian named Ugo Ungaza Villegas damaged the painting by throwing a rock at it. This resulted in the loss of a speck of pigment near the left elbow, which was later painted over.

The use of bulletproof glass has shielded the Mona Lisa from more recent attacks. In April 1974 a “lame woman”, upset by the museum’s policy for disabled people, sprayed red paint at the painting while it was on display at the Tokyo National Museum. On 2 August 2009, a Russian woman, distraught over being denied French citizenship, threw a terra cotta mug or teacup, purchased at the museum, at the painting in the Louvre the vessel shattered against the glass enclosure. In both cases, the painting was undamaged.


Who Stole the Mona Lisa?

The art whodunit that made the entire 20th century gasp! On August 21, 1911, the famed Mona Lisa was stolen off the walls of the Louvre. The scandal was called “the most colossal theft of modern times.”

Newspapers worldwide covered the story. Sixty police agents were put on the case. To no avail. Two years of investigation proved fruitless. Plenty of suspects and leads, but no Mona. Can you guess who stole her?

LEONARDO DA VINCI STOLE THE MONA LISA

Nah, Leonardo is the Renaissance artist who painted this most famous portrait. Art historians dither on the specifics but roughly agree the Mona Lisa was created between 1503-1516, with years of time in between during which the artist abandoned work on the painting.

It’s believed that Leonardo brought the portrait with him when he was invited to France by King Francis in 1516. And, he continued to hone his most famous muse there.

KING FRANCIS I STOLE THE MONA LISA

Nope, but Francis did invite the maker of La Joconde to visit his court and country in 1516. After Leonardo’s death in May 1519, the painting was bought by Francis for 4,000 écus.

The Mona Lisa was hung in all the right places: the Château de Fontainebleau, Versailles and even in the bedroom of Napolean Bonaparte after the French Revolution. But it ended up in the Louvre, from which it was stolen in 1911.

However, Francis’ acquisition of the painting does explain how the Italian Renaissance masterpiece ended up on French soil, to the consternation of some die-hard Italian nationalists…hint hint.

LOUIS BÉROUD STOLE THE MONA LISA

Not him either. Someone absconded with Mona on Aug. 21, but the theft wasn’t discovered until the next morning. Louis Béroud is actually the one who raised the hue and cry.

He strolled into the gallery of the Louvre and was met, not with that enigmatic smile, but four iron pegs marking where the Mona Lisa should have hung. He alerted guards who initially assumed the painting had been taken off exhibit to be photographed for promotional purposes by the staff.

Béroud followed up hours later. That’s when security discovered the painting was indeed missing. The Louvre closed for a week to investigate.

Béroud’s persistence might have been on-point citizenship at work, but he also had a vested interest in the return of the Mona Lisa.

He was painting his own version of the Leonardo masterpiece in situ on the walls of the Louvre’s salon and was likely looking to get his model restored to her rightful place so he could finish his homage.

GUILLAUME APOLLINAIRE STOLE THE MONA LISA

Not guilty. But on Sept. 7, 1911, writer and critic Guillaume Apollinaire was arrested and imprisoned on suspicion of the theft of the Mona Lisa and several other Egyptian figurines from the Louvre.

At one time, Apollinaire called for the Louvre to be burned down, which probably didn’t endear him to the authorities. He was released a week later. But during his time in the slammer, he managed to implicate his friend Pablo Picasso in the theft. Thanks, buddy.

Apollinaire was exonerated of all charges but it does turn out that one of his former assistants, Honoré Joseph Géry Pieret, was responsible for the theft of the Egyptian statuettes that had gone missing from the Louvre.

PABLO PICASSO STOLE THE MONA LISA

Not really, but he was in the right place — Paris — at the right time — 1911. Turns out Picasso was close friends with one of the suspects of the heist, Guillaume Apollinaire (said party mentioned above), who blubbered about Picasso to the police while being interrogated.

Police followed up and brought young Pablo in for questioning. No surprise, given that Picasso had been involved in buying stolen art from the Louvre before! Naughty artist!

But innocence will out and two years after the theft, when the true thief was caught red-handed, Picasso was fully exonerated. Whew! Close call, Pablo!

VINCENZO PERUGGIA STOLE THE MONA LISA

J’accuse! Correctly! Two years after the notorious gank of the Mona Lisa, the thief was caught trying to sell the priceless painting to an art dealer in Florence, Italy. Peruggia was a handyman and a former employee of the Louvre.

The heist involved nothing more than him hiding in a broom closet until the museum closed. Then he sidled up to the legendary portrait, pulled it off the wall, slipped it under his coat and walked out the door.

EDUARDO DE VALFIERNO STOLE THE MONA LISA…AND YVES CHAUDRON FORGED SIX COUNTERFEITS OF HER

Može biti. History paints Vincenzo Peruggia as an Italian nationalist whose most ardent wish was to see the artistic legacy of his Renaissance forefathers returned to native soil. The reality might be a tinge more corrupt.

Peruggia is rumored to have been in the employ of Argentine hustler Eduardo de Valfierno, who was working with forger Yves Chaudron (whose identity has never been confirmed) on a scheme to create and sell six counterfeit copies of the Mona Lisa while the real version conveniently went missing.

This account comes from an uncorroborated article published in the Saturday Evening Post in 1932 by journalist Karl Decker. Decker was known for his embellished style of reporting, so his credibility has been called into question. He claimed this story came to him from Valfierno on his deathbed.

Questions still stand around the existence of Valfierno and Chaudron, who have never been identified, and the fact that the alleged six fake paintings have never surfaced.

But how did Peruggia get caught?

ALFREDO GERI AND GIOVANNI POGGI STOLE THE MONA LISA

Actually, no, these two are the heroes of this tale. In December 1913, after two years of keeping the painting hidden in the false bottom of a trunk in his Paris flat, Peruggia was skittish and looking to offload Mona once and for all.

He’d never heard from Valfierno after their initial agreement and decided to take matters into his own hands. He smuggled the painting to Italy. Then he attempted to sell the work to art dealer Alfredo Geri and Uffizi Gallery director Giovanni Poggi in Florence. Suspicious of the deal, one of the museum officials called the authorities.

The Mona Lisa on display in the Uffizi Gallery, in Florence, 1913. Museum director Giovanni Poggi (right) inspects the painting.

One irony about this art heist is that Peruggia was initially a suspect. The French police tossed his place looking for evidence in 1911 but never found a clue. Peruggia’d had brushes with crime before. Once for trying to rob a prostitute and another incident involving possession of a gun.

His criminal past didn’t beef up his sentence for the Mona Lisa heist, however, which amounted to a slap on the wrist. He was jailed for six months and then pretty much hailed as a hero in Italy for trying to bring Mona back to the motherland.

It’s also interesting to note that the Mona Lisa wasn’t really known worldwide until after the theft. It wasn’t until all the news coverage that went along with the heist that the status of the Mona Lisa started to reach legendary proportions.


Gledaj video: Le vol de la Joconde : une cavale signée de lécrivain et scénariste Dan Franck (Srpanj 2022).


Komentari:

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